β-cyclodextrin–polyacryloyl hydrazide-based surface modification for efficient electron-collecting electrodes of indoor organic photovoltaics

Sang Hyeon Kim, Chan Hyung Park, Muhammad Ahsan Saeed, Doo Hyun Ko, Jung Hyun Lee, Jae Won Shim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Indoor organic photovoltaics (OPVs) show immense potential as a reliable energy harvester for powering emerging Internet of Things devices because of their unique optoelectrical properties. The extremely low number of charge carriers under indoor lighting conditions in comparison to 1-sun conditions necessitates different techniques to optimize the performance of indoor OPVs. In this study, an indium tin oxide (ITO) surface was modified using a water-soluble β-cyclodextrin–polyacryloyl hydrazide (CD–PAH). The abundant amine functional groups on the polyacryloyl hydrazide arms induce a vacuum-level shift owing to their excellent electron-withdrawing ability. Consequently, the work function (WF) of ITO decreased from 4.5 to 4.1 eV, providing a suitable energy-level alignment between ITO and the photoactive layer. The photovoltaic performance of inverted poly(3-hexylthiophene):indene-C60 bisadduct-based OPVs with the surface-treated ITO was evaluated under various lighting conditions. The average power conversion efficiency of the optimized OPV increased substantially from 1.2 ± 0.1% to 3.5 ± 0.1% under 1 sun illumination and 2.4 ± 0.2% to 8.1 ± 0.4% under light-emitting diode illumination. This remarkable performance improvement can be attributed to the excellent transmittance, smooth surface morphology, and suitable WF of the surface-modified ITO.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1659-1666
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Materials Research and Technology
Volume16
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Jan 1

Keywords

  • Cyclodextrin–polyacryloyl hydrazide (CD–PAH)
  • Electron-collecting electrode
  • Indoor organic photovoltaics
  • Surface modification

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Biomaterials
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Metals and Alloys

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