12(S)-Hydroxyheptadeca-5Z,8E,10E-trienoic acid (12-HHT) is an enzymatic product of prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) derived from cyclooxygenase (COX)-mediated arachidonic acid metabolism. Despite the high level of 12-HHT present in tissues and bodily fluids, its precise function remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that 12-HHT treatment in HaCaT cells remarkably down-regulated the ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation-induced synthesis of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a pro-inflammatory cytokine associated with cutaneous inflammation. In an approach to identify the down-stream signaling mechanism by which 12-HHT down-regulates UVB-induced IL-6 synthesis in keratinocytes, we observed that 12-HHT inhibits the UVB-stimulated activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). In addition, we found that 12-HHT markedly up-regulates MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), a critical negative regulator of p38 MAPK. When MKP-1 was suppressed by siRNA knock-down, the 12-HHT-mediated inhibitory effects on the UVB-stimulated activation of p38 MAPK and NF-κB, as well as the production of IL-6, were attenuated in HaCaT cells. Taken together, our results suggest that 12-HHT exerts anti-inflammatory effect via up-regulation of MKP-1, which negatively regulates p38 MAPK and NF-κB, thus attenuating IL-6 production in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells. Considering the critical role of IL-6 in cutaneous inflammation, our findings provide the basis for the application of 12-HHT as a potential anti-inflammatory therapeutic agent in UV-induced skin diseases.
- 12-hydroxy-5,8,10-heptadecatrienoic acid
- Dual specificity phosphatase 1
- Ultraviolet rays
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Molecular Medicine
- Clinical Biochemistry