3D asthenopia in horizontal deviation

Seung Hyun Kim, Young-Woo Suh, Cheolmin Yun, Eun Joo Yoo, Ji Hyun Yeom, Yoonae A. Cho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate the asthenopic symptoms in patients with exotropia and esotropia while watching stereoscopic 3D (S3D) television (TV). Methods: A total 77 subjects who more than 9 years of age were enrolled in this study. We divided them into three groups; Thirty-four patients with exodeviation (Exo group), 11 patients with esodeviation (Eso group) and 32 volunteers with normal binocular vision (control group). The S3D images were shown to all patients with S3D high-definition TV for a period of 20 min. Best corrected visual acuity, refractive errors, angle of strabismus, stereopsis test and history of strabismus surgery, were evaluated. After watching S3D TV for 20 min, a survey of subjective symptoms was conducted with a questionnaire to evaluate the degree of S3D perception and asthenopic symptoms such as headache, dizziness and ocular fatigue while watching 3D TV. Results: The mean amounts of deviation in the Exo group and Eso group were 11.2 PD and 7.73PD, respectively. Mean stereoacuity was 102.7 arc sec in the the Exo group and 1389.1 arc sec in the Eso group. In the control group, it was 41.9 arc sec. Twenty-nine patients in the Exo group showed excellent stereopsis (≤60 arc sec at near), but all 11 subjects of the Eso group showed 140 arc sec or worse and showed more decreased 3D perception than the Exo and the control group (p<0.001, Kruskal-Wallis test). The Exo group reported more eye fatigue (p<0.001, Kruskal-Wallis test) than the Eso and the control group. However, the scores of ocular fatigue in the patients who had undergone corrective surgery were less than in the patients who had not in the Exo group (p<0.001, Kruskal-Wallis test) and the amount of exodeviation was not correlated with the asthenopic symptoms (dizziness, r=0.034, p=0.33; headache, r=0.320, p=0.119; eye fatigue, r=0.135, p=0.519, Spearman rank correlation test, respectively). Conclusion: Symptoms of 3D asthenopia were related to the presence of exodeviation but not to esodeviation. This may indicate that S3D symptoms are closely related to the convergence demand.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)614-619
Number of pages6
JournalCurrent Eye Research
Volume38
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013 May 1

Fingerprint

Asthenopia
Exotropia
Television
Esotropia
Depth Perception
Control Groups
Strabismus
Dizziness
Headache
Binocular Vision
Refractive Errors
Visual Acuity
Healthy Volunteers

Keywords

  • 3D
  • 3D asthenopia
  • Asthenopia
  • Esodeviation
  • Exodeviation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

Cite this

3D asthenopia in horizontal deviation. / Kim, Seung Hyun; Suh, Young-Woo; Yun, Cheolmin; Yoo, Eun Joo; Yeom, Ji Hyun; Cho, Yoonae A.

In: Current Eye Research, Vol. 38, No. 5, 01.05.2013, p. 614-619.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kim, Seung Hyun ; Suh, Young-Woo ; Yun, Cheolmin ; Yoo, Eun Joo ; Yeom, Ji Hyun ; Cho, Yoonae A. / 3D asthenopia in horizontal deviation. In: Current Eye Research. 2013 ; Vol. 38, No. 5. pp. 614-619.
@article{ac42a59c4abf422f968e9408180d4c4d,
title = "3D asthenopia in horizontal deviation",
abstract = "Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate the asthenopic symptoms in patients with exotropia and esotropia while watching stereoscopic 3D (S3D) television (TV). Methods: A total 77 subjects who more than 9 years of age were enrolled in this study. We divided them into three groups; Thirty-four patients with exodeviation (Exo group), 11 patients with esodeviation (Eso group) and 32 volunteers with normal binocular vision (control group). The S3D images were shown to all patients with S3D high-definition TV for a period of 20 min. Best corrected visual acuity, refractive errors, angle of strabismus, stereopsis test and history of strabismus surgery, were evaluated. After watching S3D TV for 20 min, a survey of subjective symptoms was conducted with a questionnaire to evaluate the degree of S3D perception and asthenopic symptoms such as headache, dizziness and ocular fatigue while watching 3D TV. Results: The mean amounts of deviation in the Exo group and Eso group were 11.2 PD and 7.73PD, respectively. Mean stereoacuity was 102.7 arc sec in the the Exo group and 1389.1 arc sec in the Eso group. In the control group, it was 41.9 arc sec. Twenty-nine patients in the Exo group showed excellent stereopsis (≤60 arc sec at near), but all 11 subjects of the Eso group showed 140 arc sec or worse and showed more decreased 3D perception than the Exo and the control group (p<0.001, Kruskal-Wallis test). The Exo group reported more eye fatigue (p<0.001, Kruskal-Wallis test) than the Eso and the control group. However, the scores of ocular fatigue in the patients who had undergone corrective surgery were less than in the patients who had not in the Exo group (p<0.001, Kruskal-Wallis test) and the amount of exodeviation was not correlated with the asthenopic symptoms (dizziness, r=0.034, p=0.33; headache, r=0.320, p=0.119; eye fatigue, r=0.135, p=0.519, Spearman rank correlation test, respectively). Conclusion: Symptoms of 3D asthenopia were related to the presence of exodeviation but not to esodeviation. This may indicate that S3D symptoms are closely related to the convergence demand.",
keywords = "3D, 3D asthenopia, Asthenopia, Esodeviation, Exodeviation",
author = "Kim, {Seung Hyun} and Young-Woo Suh and Cheolmin Yun and Yoo, {Eun Joo} and Yeom, {Ji Hyun} and Cho, {Yoonae A.}",
year = "2013",
month = "5",
day = "1",
doi = "10.3109/02713683.2013.767352",
language = "English",
volume = "38",
pages = "614--619",
journal = "Current Eye Research",
issn = "0271-3683",
publisher = "Informa Healthcare",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - 3D asthenopia in horizontal deviation

AU - Kim, Seung Hyun

AU - Suh, Young-Woo

AU - Yun, Cheolmin

AU - Yoo, Eun Joo

AU - Yeom, Ji Hyun

AU - Cho, Yoonae A.

PY - 2013/5/1

Y1 - 2013/5/1

N2 - Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate the asthenopic symptoms in patients with exotropia and esotropia while watching stereoscopic 3D (S3D) television (TV). Methods: A total 77 subjects who more than 9 years of age were enrolled in this study. We divided them into three groups; Thirty-four patients with exodeviation (Exo group), 11 patients with esodeviation (Eso group) and 32 volunteers with normal binocular vision (control group). The S3D images were shown to all patients with S3D high-definition TV for a period of 20 min. Best corrected visual acuity, refractive errors, angle of strabismus, stereopsis test and history of strabismus surgery, were evaluated. After watching S3D TV for 20 min, a survey of subjective symptoms was conducted with a questionnaire to evaluate the degree of S3D perception and asthenopic symptoms such as headache, dizziness and ocular fatigue while watching 3D TV. Results: The mean amounts of deviation in the Exo group and Eso group were 11.2 PD and 7.73PD, respectively. Mean stereoacuity was 102.7 arc sec in the the Exo group and 1389.1 arc sec in the Eso group. In the control group, it was 41.9 arc sec. Twenty-nine patients in the Exo group showed excellent stereopsis (≤60 arc sec at near), but all 11 subjects of the Eso group showed 140 arc sec or worse and showed more decreased 3D perception than the Exo and the control group (p<0.001, Kruskal-Wallis test). The Exo group reported more eye fatigue (p<0.001, Kruskal-Wallis test) than the Eso and the control group. However, the scores of ocular fatigue in the patients who had undergone corrective surgery were less than in the patients who had not in the Exo group (p<0.001, Kruskal-Wallis test) and the amount of exodeviation was not correlated with the asthenopic symptoms (dizziness, r=0.034, p=0.33; headache, r=0.320, p=0.119; eye fatigue, r=0.135, p=0.519, Spearman rank correlation test, respectively). Conclusion: Symptoms of 3D asthenopia were related to the presence of exodeviation but not to esodeviation. This may indicate that S3D symptoms are closely related to the convergence demand.

AB - Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate the asthenopic symptoms in patients with exotropia and esotropia while watching stereoscopic 3D (S3D) television (TV). Methods: A total 77 subjects who more than 9 years of age were enrolled in this study. We divided them into three groups; Thirty-four patients with exodeviation (Exo group), 11 patients with esodeviation (Eso group) and 32 volunteers with normal binocular vision (control group). The S3D images were shown to all patients with S3D high-definition TV for a period of 20 min. Best corrected visual acuity, refractive errors, angle of strabismus, stereopsis test and history of strabismus surgery, were evaluated. After watching S3D TV for 20 min, a survey of subjective symptoms was conducted with a questionnaire to evaluate the degree of S3D perception and asthenopic symptoms such as headache, dizziness and ocular fatigue while watching 3D TV. Results: The mean amounts of deviation in the Exo group and Eso group were 11.2 PD and 7.73PD, respectively. Mean stereoacuity was 102.7 arc sec in the the Exo group and 1389.1 arc sec in the Eso group. In the control group, it was 41.9 arc sec. Twenty-nine patients in the Exo group showed excellent stereopsis (≤60 arc sec at near), but all 11 subjects of the Eso group showed 140 arc sec or worse and showed more decreased 3D perception than the Exo and the control group (p<0.001, Kruskal-Wallis test). The Exo group reported more eye fatigue (p<0.001, Kruskal-Wallis test) than the Eso and the control group. However, the scores of ocular fatigue in the patients who had undergone corrective surgery were less than in the patients who had not in the Exo group (p<0.001, Kruskal-Wallis test) and the amount of exodeviation was not correlated with the asthenopic symptoms (dizziness, r=0.034, p=0.33; headache, r=0.320, p=0.119; eye fatigue, r=0.135, p=0.519, Spearman rank correlation test, respectively). Conclusion: Symptoms of 3D asthenopia were related to the presence of exodeviation but not to esodeviation. This may indicate that S3D symptoms are closely related to the convergence demand.

KW - 3D

KW - 3D asthenopia

KW - Asthenopia

KW - Esodeviation

KW - Exodeviation

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84875882357&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84875882357&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3109/02713683.2013.767352

DO - 10.3109/02713683.2013.767352

M3 - Article

C2 - 23406011

AN - SCOPUS:84875882357

VL - 38

SP - 614

EP - 619

JO - Current Eye Research

JF - Current Eye Research

SN - 0271-3683

IS - 5

ER -