3D plotting using camphene as pore-regulating agent to produce hierarchical macro/micro-porous poly(ε-caprolactone)/calcium phosphate composite scaffolds

Jae Won Choi, Woo Youl Maeng, Young-Hag Koh, Hyun Lee, Hyoun Ee Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


This study demonstrates the utility of camphene as the pore-regulating agent for phase separation-based 3D plotting to produce hierarchical macro/micro-porous poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)-calcium phosphate (CaP) composite scaffolds, specifically featuring highly microporous surfaces. Unlike conventional particulate porogens, camphene is highly soluble in acetone, the solvent for PCL polymer, but insoluble in coagulation medium (water). In this study, this unique characteristic supported the creation of numerous micropores both within and at the surfaces of PCL and PCL-CaP composite filaments when using high camphene contents (40 and 50 wt%). In addition, the incorporation of the CaP particles into PCL solutions did not deteriorate the formation of microporous structures, and thus hierarchical macro/micro-porous PCL-CaP composite scaffolds could be successfully produced. As the CaP content increased, the in vitro biocompatibility, apatite-forming ability, and mechanical properties (tensile strength, tensile modulus, and compressive modulus) of the PCL-CaP composite scaffolds were substantially improved.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2650
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jan 1



  • 3D printing
  • Hydroxyapatite
  • In vitro bioactivity
  • Poly(ε-caprolactone)
  • Porous scaffolds

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)

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