A benchmark study on the thermal conductivity of nanofluids

Jacopo Buongiorno, David C. Venerus, Naveen Prabhat, Thomas McKrell, Jessica Townsend, Rebecca Christianson, Yuriy V. Tolmachev, Pawel Keblinski, Lin Wen Hu, Jorge L. Alvarado, In Cheol Bang, Sandra W. Bishnoi, Marco Bonetti, Frank Botz, Anselmo Cecere, Yun Chang, Gang Chen, Haisheng Chen, Sung Jae Chung, Minking K. ChyuSarit K. Das, Roberto Di Paola, Yulong Ding, Frank Dubois, Grzegorz Dzido, Jacob Eapen, Werner Escher, Denis Funfschilling, Quentin Galand, Jinwei Gao, Patricia E. Gharagozloo, Kenneth E. Goodson, Jorge Gustavo Gutierrez, Haiping Hong, Mark Horton, Kyo Sik Hwang, Carlo S. Iorio, Seok Pil Jang, Andrzej B. Jarzebski, Yiran Jiang, Liwen Jin, Stephan Kabelac, Aravind Kamath, Mark A. Kedzierski, Lim Geok Kieng, Chongyoup Kim, Ji Hyun Kim, Seokwon Kim, Seung Hyun Lee, Kai Choong Leong, Indranil Manna, Bruno Michel, Rui Ni, Hrishikesh E. Patel, John Philip, Dimos Poulikakos, Cecile Reynaud, Raffaele Savino, Pawan K. Singh, Pengxiang Song, Thirumalachari Sundararajan, Elena Timofeeva, Todd Tritcak, Aleksandr N. Turanov, Stefan Van Vaerenbergh, Dongsheng Wen, Sanjeeva Witharana, Chun Yang, Wei Hsun Yeh, Xiao Zheng Zhao, Sheng Qi Zhou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

774 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This article reports on the International Nanofluid Property Benchmark Exercise, or INPBE, in which the thermal conductivity of identical samples of colloidally stable dispersions of nanoparticles or "nanofluids," was measured by over 30 organizations worldwide, using a variety of experimental approaches, including the transient hot wire method, steady-state methods, and optical methods. The nanofluids tested in the exercise were comprised of aqueous and nonaqueous basefluids, metal and metal oxide particles, near-spherical and elongated particles, at low and high particle concentrations. The data analysis reveals that the data from most organizations lie within a relatively narrow band (±10% or less) about the sample average with only few outliers. The thermal conductivity of the nanofluids was found to increase with particle concentration and aspect ratio, as expected from classical theory. There are (small) systematic differences in the absolute values of the nanofluid thermal conductivity among the various experimental approaches; however, such differences tend to disappear when the data are normalized to the measured thermal conductivity of the basefluid. The effective medium theory developed for dispersed particles by Maxwell in 1881 and recently generalized by Nan [J. Appl. Phys. 81, 6692 (1997)], was found to be in good agreement with the experimental data, suggesting that no anomalous enhancement of thermal conductivity was achieved in the nanofluids tested in this exercise.

Original languageEnglish
Article number094312
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Volume106
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009 Nov 30

Fingerprint

thermal conductivity
physical exercise
metal oxides
narrowband
aspect ratio
wire
optics
nanoparticles
augmentation
metals

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

Cite this

Buongiorno, J., Venerus, D. C., Prabhat, N., McKrell, T., Townsend, J., Christianson, R., ... Zhou, S. Q. (2009). A benchmark study on the thermal conductivity of nanofluids. Journal of Applied Physics, 106(9), [094312]. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3245330

A benchmark study on the thermal conductivity of nanofluids. / Buongiorno, Jacopo; Venerus, David C.; Prabhat, Naveen; McKrell, Thomas; Townsend, Jessica; Christianson, Rebecca; Tolmachev, Yuriy V.; Keblinski, Pawel; Hu, Lin Wen; Alvarado, Jorge L.; Bang, In Cheol; Bishnoi, Sandra W.; Bonetti, Marco; Botz, Frank; Cecere, Anselmo; Chang, Yun; Chen, Gang; Chen, Haisheng; Chung, Sung Jae; Chyu, Minking K.; Das, Sarit K.; Di Paola, Roberto; Ding, Yulong; Dubois, Frank; Dzido, Grzegorz; Eapen, Jacob; Escher, Werner; Funfschilling, Denis; Galand, Quentin; Gao, Jinwei; Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Goodson, Kenneth E.; Gutierrez, Jorge Gustavo; Hong, Haiping; Horton, Mark; Hwang, Kyo Sik; Iorio, Carlo S.; Jang, Seok Pil; Jarzebski, Andrzej B.; Jiang, Yiran; Jin, Liwen; Kabelac, Stephan; Kamath, Aravind; Kedzierski, Mark A.; Kieng, Lim Geok; Kim, Chongyoup; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Seokwon; Lee, Seung Hyun; Leong, Kai Choong; Manna, Indranil; Michel, Bruno; Ni, Rui; Patel, Hrishikesh E.; Philip, John; Poulikakos, Dimos; Reynaud, Cecile; Savino, Raffaele; Singh, Pawan K.; Song, Pengxiang; Sundararajan, Thirumalachari; Timofeeva, Elena; Tritcak, Todd; Turanov, Aleksandr N.; Van Vaerenbergh, Stefan; Wen, Dongsheng; Witharana, Sanjeeva; Yang, Chun; Yeh, Wei Hsun; Zhao, Xiao Zheng; Zhou, Sheng Qi.

In: Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 106, No. 9, 094312, 30.11.2009.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Buongiorno, J, Venerus, DC, Prabhat, N, McKrell, T, Townsend, J, Christianson, R, Tolmachev, YV, Keblinski, P, Hu, LW, Alvarado, JL, Bang, IC, Bishnoi, SW, Bonetti, M, Botz, F, Cecere, A, Chang, Y, Chen, G, Chen, H, Chung, SJ, Chyu, MK, Das, SK, Di Paola, R, Ding, Y, Dubois, F, Dzido, G, Eapen, J, Escher, W, Funfschilling, D, Galand, Q, Gao, J, Gharagozloo, PE, Goodson, KE, Gutierrez, JG, Hong, H, Horton, M, Hwang, KS, Iorio, CS, Jang, SP, Jarzebski, AB, Jiang, Y, Jin, L, Kabelac, S, Kamath, A, Kedzierski, MA, Kieng, LG, Kim, C, Kim, JH, Kim, S, Lee, SH, Leong, KC, Manna, I, Michel, B, Ni, R, Patel, HE, Philip, J, Poulikakos, D, Reynaud, C, Savino, R, Singh, PK, Song, P, Sundararajan, T, Timofeeva, E, Tritcak, T, Turanov, AN, Van Vaerenbergh, S, Wen, D, Witharana, S, Yang, C, Yeh, WH, Zhao, XZ & Zhou, SQ 2009, 'A benchmark study on the thermal conductivity of nanofluids', Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 106, no. 9, 094312. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3245330
Buongiorno J, Venerus DC, Prabhat N, McKrell T, Townsend J, Christianson R et al. A benchmark study on the thermal conductivity of nanofluids. Journal of Applied Physics. 2009 Nov 30;106(9). 094312. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3245330
Buongiorno, Jacopo ; Venerus, David C. ; Prabhat, Naveen ; McKrell, Thomas ; Townsend, Jessica ; Christianson, Rebecca ; Tolmachev, Yuriy V. ; Keblinski, Pawel ; Hu, Lin Wen ; Alvarado, Jorge L. ; Bang, In Cheol ; Bishnoi, Sandra W. ; Bonetti, Marco ; Botz, Frank ; Cecere, Anselmo ; Chang, Yun ; Chen, Gang ; Chen, Haisheng ; Chung, Sung Jae ; Chyu, Minking K. ; Das, Sarit K. ; Di Paola, Roberto ; Ding, Yulong ; Dubois, Frank ; Dzido, Grzegorz ; Eapen, Jacob ; Escher, Werner ; Funfschilling, Denis ; Galand, Quentin ; Gao, Jinwei ; Gharagozloo, Patricia E. ; Goodson, Kenneth E. ; Gutierrez, Jorge Gustavo ; Hong, Haiping ; Horton, Mark ; Hwang, Kyo Sik ; Iorio, Carlo S. ; Jang, Seok Pil ; Jarzebski, Andrzej B. ; Jiang, Yiran ; Jin, Liwen ; Kabelac, Stephan ; Kamath, Aravind ; Kedzierski, Mark A. ; Kieng, Lim Geok ; Kim, Chongyoup ; Kim, Ji Hyun ; Kim, Seokwon ; Lee, Seung Hyun ; Leong, Kai Choong ; Manna, Indranil ; Michel, Bruno ; Ni, Rui ; Patel, Hrishikesh E. ; Philip, John ; Poulikakos, Dimos ; Reynaud, Cecile ; Savino, Raffaele ; Singh, Pawan K. ; Song, Pengxiang ; Sundararajan, Thirumalachari ; Timofeeva, Elena ; Tritcak, Todd ; Turanov, Aleksandr N. ; Van Vaerenbergh, Stefan ; Wen, Dongsheng ; Witharana, Sanjeeva ; Yang, Chun ; Yeh, Wei Hsun ; Zhao, Xiao Zheng ; Zhou, Sheng Qi. / A benchmark study on the thermal conductivity of nanofluids. In: Journal of Applied Physics. 2009 ; Vol. 106, No. 9.
@article{1170f1e492314e14b22cdfa5c140ead6,
title = "A benchmark study on the thermal conductivity of nanofluids",
abstract = "This article reports on the International Nanofluid Property Benchmark Exercise, or INPBE, in which the thermal conductivity of identical samples of colloidally stable dispersions of nanoparticles or {"}nanofluids,{"} was measured by over 30 organizations worldwide, using a variety of experimental approaches, including the transient hot wire method, steady-state methods, and optical methods. The nanofluids tested in the exercise were comprised of aqueous and nonaqueous basefluids, metal and metal oxide particles, near-spherical and elongated particles, at low and high particle concentrations. The data analysis reveals that the data from most organizations lie within a relatively narrow band (±10{\%} or less) about the sample average with only few outliers. The thermal conductivity of the nanofluids was found to increase with particle concentration and aspect ratio, as expected from classical theory. There are (small) systematic differences in the absolute values of the nanofluid thermal conductivity among the various experimental approaches; however, such differences tend to disappear when the data are normalized to the measured thermal conductivity of the basefluid. The effective medium theory developed for dispersed particles by Maxwell in 1881 and recently generalized by Nan [J. Appl. Phys. 81, 6692 (1997)], was found to be in good agreement with the experimental data, suggesting that no anomalous enhancement of thermal conductivity was achieved in the nanofluids tested in this exercise.",
author = "Jacopo Buongiorno and Venerus, {David C.} and Naveen Prabhat and Thomas McKrell and Jessica Townsend and Rebecca Christianson and Tolmachev, {Yuriy V.} and Pawel Keblinski and Hu, {Lin Wen} and Alvarado, {Jorge L.} and Bang, {In Cheol} and Bishnoi, {Sandra W.} and Marco Bonetti and Frank Botz and Anselmo Cecere and Yun Chang and Gang Chen and Haisheng Chen and Chung, {Sung Jae} and Chyu, {Minking K.} and Das, {Sarit K.} and {Di Paola}, Roberto and Yulong Ding and Frank Dubois and Grzegorz Dzido and Jacob Eapen and Werner Escher and Denis Funfschilling and Quentin Galand and Jinwei Gao and Gharagozloo, {Patricia E.} and Goodson, {Kenneth E.} and Gutierrez, {Jorge Gustavo} and Haiping Hong and Mark Horton and Hwang, {Kyo Sik} and Iorio, {Carlo S.} and Jang, {Seok Pil} and Jarzebski, {Andrzej B.} and Yiran Jiang and Liwen Jin and Stephan Kabelac and Aravind Kamath and Kedzierski, {Mark A.} and Kieng, {Lim Geok} and Chongyoup Kim and Kim, {Ji Hyun} and Seokwon Kim and Lee, {Seung Hyun} and Leong, {Kai Choong} and Indranil Manna and Bruno Michel and Rui Ni and Patel, {Hrishikesh E.} and John Philip and Dimos Poulikakos and Cecile Reynaud and Raffaele Savino and Singh, {Pawan K.} and Pengxiang Song and Thirumalachari Sundararajan and Elena Timofeeva and Todd Tritcak and Turanov, {Aleksandr N.} and {Van Vaerenbergh}, Stefan and Dongsheng Wen and Sanjeeva Witharana and Chun Yang and Yeh, {Wei Hsun} and Zhao, {Xiao Zheng} and Zhou, {Sheng Qi}",
year = "2009",
month = "11",
day = "30",
doi = "10.1063/1.3245330",
language = "English",
volume = "106",
journal = "Journal of Applied Physics",
issn = "0021-8979",
publisher = "American Institute of Physics Publising LLC",
number = "9",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - A benchmark study on the thermal conductivity of nanofluids

AU - Buongiorno, Jacopo

AU - Venerus, David C.

AU - Prabhat, Naveen

AU - McKrell, Thomas

AU - Townsend, Jessica

AU - Christianson, Rebecca

AU - Tolmachev, Yuriy V.

AU - Keblinski, Pawel

AU - Hu, Lin Wen

AU - Alvarado, Jorge L.

AU - Bang, In Cheol

AU - Bishnoi, Sandra W.

AU - Bonetti, Marco

AU - Botz, Frank

AU - Cecere, Anselmo

AU - Chang, Yun

AU - Chen, Gang

AU - Chen, Haisheng

AU - Chung, Sung Jae

AU - Chyu, Minking K.

AU - Das, Sarit K.

AU - Di Paola, Roberto

AU - Ding, Yulong

AU - Dubois, Frank

AU - Dzido, Grzegorz

AU - Eapen, Jacob

AU - Escher, Werner

AU - Funfschilling, Denis

AU - Galand, Quentin

AU - Gao, Jinwei

AU - Gharagozloo, Patricia E.

AU - Goodson, Kenneth E.

AU - Gutierrez, Jorge Gustavo

AU - Hong, Haiping

AU - Horton, Mark

AU - Hwang, Kyo Sik

AU - Iorio, Carlo S.

AU - Jang, Seok Pil

AU - Jarzebski, Andrzej B.

AU - Jiang, Yiran

AU - Jin, Liwen

AU - Kabelac, Stephan

AU - Kamath, Aravind

AU - Kedzierski, Mark A.

AU - Kieng, Lim Geok

AU - Kim, Chongyoup

AU - Kim, Ji Hyun

AU - Kim, Seokwon

AU - Lee, Seung Hyun

AU - Leong, Kai Choong

AU - Manna, Indranil

AU - Michel, Bruno

AU - Ni, Rui

AU - Patel, Hrishikesh E.

AU - Philip, John

AU - Poulikakos, Dimos

AU - Reynaud, Cecile

AU - Savino, Raffaele

AU - Singh, Pawan K.

AU - Song, Pengxiang

AU - Sundararajan, Thirumalachari

AU - Timofeeva, Elena

AU - Tritcak, Todd

AU - Turanov, Aleksandr N.

AU - Van Vaerenbergh, Stefan

AU - Wen, Dongsheng

AU - Witharana, Sanjeeva

AU - Yang, Chun

AU - Yeh, Wei Hsun

AU - Zhao, Xiao Zheng

AU - Zhou, Sheng Qi

PY - 2009/11/30

Y1 - 2009/11/30

N2 - This article reports on the International Nanofluid Property Benchmark Exercise, or INPBE, in which the thermal conductivity of identical samples of colloidally stable dispersions of nanoparticles or "nanofluids," was measured by over 30 organizations worldwide, using a variety of experimental approaches, including the transient hot wire method, steady-state methods, and optical methods. The nanofluids tested in the exercise were comprised of aqueous and nonaqueous basefluids, metal and metal oxide particles, near-spherical and elongated particles, at low and high particle concentrations. The data analysis reveals that the data from most organizations lie within a relatively narrow band (±10% or less) about the sample average with only few outliers. The thermal conductivity of the nanofluids was found to increase with particle concentration and aspect ratio, as expected from classical theory. There are (small) systematic differences in the absolute values of the nanofluid thermal conductivity among the various experimental approaches; however, such differences tend to disappear when the data are normalized to the measured thermal conductivity of the basefluid. The effective medium theory developed for dispersed particles by Maxwell in 1881 and recently generalized by Nan [J. Appl. Phys. 81, 6692 (1997)], was found to be in good agreement with the experimental data, suggesting that no anomalous enhancement of thermal conductivity was achieved in the nanofluids tested in this exercise.

AB - This article reports on the International Nanofluid Property Benchmark Exercise, or INPBE, in which the thermal conductivity of identical samples of colloidally stable dispersions of nanoparticles or "nanofluids," was measured by over 30 organizations worldwide, using a variety of experimental approaches, including the transient hot wire method, steady-state methods, and optical methods. The nanofluids tested in the exercise were comprised of aqueous and nonaqueous basefluids, metal and metal oxide particles, near-spherical and elongated particles, at low and high particle concentrations. The data analysis reveals that the data from most organizations lie within a relatively narrow band (±10% or less) about the sample average with only few outliers. The thermal conductivity of the nanofluids was found to increase with particle concentration and aspect ratio, as expected from classical theory. There are (small) systematic differences in the absolute values of the nanofluid thermal conductivity among the various experimental approaches; however, such differences tend to disappear when the data are normalized to the measured thermal conductivity of the basefluid. The effective medium theory developed for dispersed particles by Maxwell in 1881 and recently generalized by Nan [J. Appl. Phys. 81, 6692 (1997)], was found to be in good agreement with the experimental data, suggesting that no anomalous enhancement of thermal conductivity was achieved in the nanofluids tested in this exercise.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=70349607220&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=70349607220&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1063/1.3245330

DO - 10.1063/1.3245330

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:70349607220

VL - 106

JO - Journal of Applied Physics

JF - Journal of Applied Physics

SN - 0021-8979

IS - 9

M1 - 094312

ER -