Portal vein invasion is a grave prognostic indicator in the setting of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). There is currently no effective method for preventing the invasion of HCC into the main portal vein. We report here a case of advanced HCC with portal vein tumor thrombosis that was effectively treated with percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), having previously enabled subsequent successive transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). A 60-year-old male patient was diagnosed with a huge HCC, based on computed tomography and angiographic findings. Despite two sessions of TACE, the tumor invaded the right portal vein. PEI was performed on the malignant portal vein thrombosis, and three sessions thereof reduced the extent of tumor thrombi in the portal vein. Successive TACEs were performed to treat the HCC in the hepatic parenchyma. The patient was still living 19 months after the first PEI with no evidence of tumor recurrence, and his liver function remained well preserved.
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