A clinical anatomic study of internal mammary perforators as recipient vessels for breast reconstruction

In Soo Baek, Jae Pil You, Sung Mi Rhee, Gil Soo Son, Deok-Woo Kim, Eun-Sang Dhong, Seung Ha Park, Eul Sik Yoon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background Partially resecting ribs of the recipient site to facilitate easy anastomosis of the internal mammary vessels to free flaps during breast reconstruction can cause chest wall pain or deformities. To avoid this, the intercostal perforating branches of the internal mammary vessels can be used for anastomosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the location and size of the internal mammary perforator vessels based on clinical intraoperative fndings and to determine their reliability as recipient vessels for breast reconstruction with microsurgical free tissue transfer. Methods Twelve patients were preoperatively screened for the presence of internal mammary perforators using Doppler tracing. After modified radical mastectomy was performed by a general surgeon, the location and size of the internal mammary perforator vessels were microscopically investigated. The external diameter was examined using a vessel-measuring gauge from a mechanical coupling device, and the distance from the mid-sternal line to the perforator was also measured. Results The largest arterial perforator averaged 1.5 mm, and the largest venous perforator averaged 2.2 mm. Perforators emerging from the second intercostal space had the largest average external diameter; the second intercostal space also had the largest number of perforators arising from it. The average distance from the mid-sternal line to the perforator was 20.2 mm. Conclusions Internal mammary perforators presented consistent and reliable anatomy in this study. Based on these results, the internal mammary perforators appear to have a suitable diameter for microvascular anastomosis and should be considered as an alternative recipient vessel to the internal mammary vessel.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)761-765
Number of pages5
JournalArchives of Plastic Surgery
Volume40
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Nov 1

Fingerprint

Mammaplasty
Breast
Modified Radical Mastectomy
Clinical Studies
Free Tissue Flaps
Thoracic Wall
Ribs
Chest Pain
Anatomy
Equipment and Supplies

Keywords

  • Breast neoplasms
  • Free tissue flaps
  • Mammary arteries
  • Mastectomy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

Cite this

A clinical anatomic study of internal mammary perforators as recipient vessels for breast reconstruction. / Baek, In Soo; You, Jae Pil; Rhee, Sung Mi; Son, Gil Soo; Kim, Deok-Woo; Dhong, Eun-Sang; Park, Seung Ha; Yoon, Eul Sik.

In: Archives of Plastic Surgery, Vol. 40, No. 6, 01.11.2013, p. 761-765.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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N2 - Background Partially resecting ribs of the recipient site to facilitate easy anastomosis of the internal mammary vessels to free flaps during breast reconstruction can cause chest wall pain or deformities. To avoid this, the intercostal perforating branches of the internal mammary vessels can be used for anastomosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the location and size of the internal mammary perforator vessels based on clinical intraoperative fndings and to determine their reliability as recipient vessels for breast reconstruction with microsurgical free tissue transfer. Methods Twelve patients were preoperatively screened for the presence of internal mammary perforators using Doppler tracing. After modified radical mastectomy was performed by a general surgeon, the location and size of the internal mammary perforator vessels were microscopically investigated. The external diameter was examined using a vessel-measuring gauge from a mechanical coupling device, and the distance from the mid-sternal line to the perforator was also measured. Results The largest arterial perforator averaged 1.5 mm, and the largest venous perforator averaged 2.2 mm. Perforators emerging from the second intercostal space had the largest average external diameter; the second intercostal space also had the largest number of perforators arising from it. The average distance from the mid-sternal line to the perforator was 20.2 mm. Conclusions Internal mammary perforators presented consistent and reliable anatomy in this study. Based on these results, the internal mammary perforators appear to have a suitable diameter for microvascular anastomosis and should be considered as an alternative recipient vessel to the internal mammary vessel.

AB - Background Partially resecting ribs of the recipient site to facilitate easy anastomosis of the internal mammary vessels to free flaps during breast reconstruction can cause chest wall pain or deformities. To avoid this, the intercostal perforating branches of the internal mammary vessels can be used for anastomosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the location and size of the internal mammary perforator vessels based on clinical intraoperative fndings and to determine their reliability as recipient vessels for breast reconstruction with microsurgical free tissue transfer. Methods Twelve patients were preoperatively screened for the presence of internal mammary perforators using Doppler tracing. After modified radical mastectomy was performed by a general surgeon, the location and size of the internal mammary perforator vessels were microscopically investigated. The external diameter was examined using a vessel-measuring gauge from a mechanical coupling device, and the distance from the mid-sternal line to the perforator was also measured. Results The largest arterial perforator averaged 1.5 mm, and the largest venous perforator averaged 2.2 mm. Perforators emerging from the second intercostal space had the largest average external diameter; the second intercostal space also had the largest number of perforators arising from it. The average distance from the mid-sternal line to the perforator was 20.2 mm. Conclusions Internal mammary perforators presented consistent and reliable anatomy in this study. Based on these results, the internal mammary perforators appear to have a suitable diameter for microvascular anastomosis and should be considered as an alternative recipient vessel to the internal mammary vessel.

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