A critical prospective analysis of the potential toxicity of trace element regulation limits in soils worldwide

Are they protective concerning health risk assessment? - A review

Vasileios Antoniadis, Sabry M. Shaheen, Efi Levizou, Muhammad Shahid, Nabeel Khan Niazi, Meththika Vithanage, Yong Sik Ok, Nanthi Bolan, Jörg Rinklebe

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Trace elements (TEs) may have toxic effects to plants and humans; thus, countries and organizations impose maximum allowable regulation limits of their concentrations in soils. Usually such limits are placed in different categories according to soil use, soil properties or based on both attributes. However, some countries have regulation limits irrespective of differentiation in soil properties. In this review, we aimed at collecting TE regulation limits in soils from major countries and organizations around the globe, and critiquing them by assessing potential human health risks in the case of soils attaining the maximum allowable values. We explored the soil-to-human pathway and differentiated among three major exposures from TEs, i.e., residential, industrial and agricultural. We observed the existence of problems concerning TE regulation limits, among which the fact that limits across countries do not regulate the same TEs, not even a minimum number of TEs. This indicates that countries do not seem to agree on which regulation limits of TEs pose a high risk. Also, these regulation limits do not take into account TE mobility to neighbouring environment interphases such as plant, especially edible, and water matrices. Moreover, limits for same TEs are vastly diverse across countries; this indicates that those countries have conflicting information concerning TE-related health risks. Subsequently, we addressed this problem of diversity by quantifying resultant risks; we did that by calculating human health risk indices, taking into consideration the cases in which the highest allowable TE limits are attained in soil. Arsenic limits were found to generate a relatively high hazard quotient (HQ i , accounting for human intake over the maximum allowable oral reference dose for that same TE), indicating that its risk tends to be underestimated. Other TE limits, such as those of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn typically result in low HQ i , meaning that limits in their cases are rather overprotective. Our approach reveals the need of reducing diversity in regulation limits by drafting soil legislations of worldwide validity, since risks are common across countries. We suggest that new directions should strategically tend to (a) reduce limits of TEs with underestimated contribution to health risk (such as As), (b) cautiously increase limits of TEs that currently cause minor health risks, (c) quantify TE risks associated with uptake to edible plants and potable water, and (d) consider multi-element contamination cases, where risks are cumulatively enhanced due to TE synergism.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)819-847
Number of pages29
JournalEnvironment International
Volume127
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jun 1
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

critical analysis
Trace Elements
health risk
risk assessment
Soil
trace element
toxicity
Health
soil
Edible Plants
regulation
soil property
element mobility
synergism
Poisons
Interphase
Arsenic
Risk-Taking
Legislation

Keywords

  • Critical limits
  • Health risk assessment
  • Metal(loid)s
  • Soils

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)

Cite this

A critical prospective analysis of the potential toxicity of trace element regulation limits in soils worldwide : Are they protective concerning health risk assessment? - A review. / Antoniadis, Vasileios; Shaheen, Sabry M.; Levizou, Efi; Shahid, Muhammad; Niazi, Nabeel Khan; Vithanage, Meththika; Ok, Yong Sik; Bolan, Nanthi; Rinklebe, Jörg.

In: Environment International, Vol. 127, 01.06.2019, p. 819-847.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Antoniadis, Vasileios ; Shaheen, Sabry M. ; Levizou, Efi ; Shahid, Muhammad ; Niazi, Nabeel Khan ; Vithanage, Meththika ; Ok, Yong Sik ; Bolan, Nanthi ; Rinklebe, Jörg. / A critical prospective analysis of the potential toxicity of trace element regulation limits in soils worldwide : Are they protective concerning health risk assessment? - A review. In: Environment International. 2019 ; Vol. 127. pp. 819-847.
@article{03899116f1b246218ea3884be77e2b35,
title = "A critical prospective analysis of the potential toxicity of trace element regulation limits in soils worldwide: Are they protective concerning health risk assessment? - A review",
abstract = "Trace elements (TEs) may have toxic effects to plants and humans; thus, countries and organizations impose maximum allowable regulation limits of their concentrations in soils. Usually such limits are placed in different categories according to soil use, soil properties or based on both attributes. However, some countries have regulation limits irrespective of differentiation in soil properties. In this review, we aimed at collecting TE regulation limits in soils from major countries and organizations around the globe, and critiquing them by assessing potential human health risks in the case of soils attaining the maximum allowable values. We explored the soil-to-human pathway and differentiated among three major exposures from TEs, i.e., residential, industrial and agricultural. We observed the existence of problems concerning TE regulation limits, among which the fact that limits across countries do not regulate the same TEs, not even a minimum number of TEs. This indicates that countries do not seem to agree on which regulation limits of TEs pose a high risk. Also, these regulation limits do not take into account TE mobility to neighbouring environment interphases such as plant, especially edible, and water matrices. Moreover, limits for same TEs are vastly diverse across countries; this indicates that those countries have conflicting information concerning TE-related health risks. Subsequently, we addressed this problem of diversity by quantifying resultant risks; we did that by calculating human health risk indices, taking into consideration the cases in which the highest allowable TE limits are attained in soil. Arsenic limits were found to generate a relatively high hazard quotient (HQ i , accounting for human intake over the maximum allowable oral reference dose for that same TE), indicating that its risk tends to be underestimated. Other TE limits, such as those of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn typically result in low HQ i , meaning that limits in their cases are rather overprotective. Our approach reveals the need of reducing diversity in regulation limits by drafting soil legislations of worldwide validity, since risks are common across countries. We suggest that new directions should strategically tend to (a) reduce limits of TEs with underestimated contribution to health risk (such as As), (b) cautiously increase limits of TEs that currently cause minor health risks, (c) quantify TE risks associated with uptake to edible plants and potable water, and (d) consider multi-element contamination cases, where risks are cumulatively enhanced due to TE synergism.",
keywords = "Critical limits, Health risk assessment, Metal(loid)s, Soils",
author = "Vasileios Antoniadis and Shaheen, {Sabry M.} and Efi Levizou and Muhammad Shahid and Niazi, {Nabeel Khan} and Meththika Vithanage and Ok, {Yong Sik} and Nanthi Bolan and J{\"o}rg Rinklebe",
year = "2019",
month = "6",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.envint.2019.03.039",
language = "English",
volume = "127",
pages = "819--847",
journal = "Environmental International",
issn = "0160-4120",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - A critical prospective analysis of the potential toxicity of trace element regulation limits in soils worldwide

T2 - Are they protective concerning health risk assessment? - A review

AU - Antoniadis, Vasileios

AU - Shaheen, Sabry M.

AU - Levizou, Efi

AU - Shahid, Muhammad

AU - Niazi, Nabeel Khan

AU - Vithanage, Meththika

AU - Ok, Yong Sik

AU - Bolan, Nanthi

AU - Rinklebe, Jörg

PY - 2019/6/1

Y1 - 2019/6/1

N2 - Trace elements (TEs) may have toxic effects to plants and humans; thus, countries and organizations impose maximum allowable regulation limits of their concentrations in soils. Usually such limits are placed in different categories according to soil use, soil properties or based on both attributes. However, some countries have regulation limits irrespective of differentiation in soil properties. In this review, we aimed at collecting TE regulation limits in soils from major countries and organizations around the globe, and critiquing them by assessing potential human health risks in the case of soils attaining the maximum allowable values. We explored the soil-to-human pathway and differentiated among three major exposures from TEs, i.e., residential, industrial and agricultural. We observed the existence of problems concerning TE regulation limits, among which the fact that limits across countries do not regulate the same TEs, not even a minimum number of TEs. This indicates that countries do not seem to agree on which regulation limits of TEs pose a high risk. Also, these regulation limits do not take into account TE mobility to neighbouring environment interphases such as plant, especially edible, and water matrices. Moreover, limits for same TEs are vastly diverse across countries; this indicates that those countries have conflicting information concerning TE-related health risks. Subsequently, we addressed this problem of diversity by quantifying resultant risks; we did that by calculating human health risk indices, taking into consideration the cases in which the highest allowable TE limits are attained in soil. Arsenic limits were found to generate a relatively high hazard quotient (HQ i , accounting for human intake over the maximum allowable oral reference dose for that same TE), indicating that its risk tends to be underestimated. Other TE limits, such as those of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn typically result in low HQ i , meaning that limits in their cases are rather overprotective. Our approach reveals the need of reducing diversity in regulation limits by drafting soil legislations of worldwide validity, since risks are common across countries. We suggest that new directions should strategically tend to (a) reduce limits of TEs with underestimated contribution to health risk (such as As), (b) cautiously increase limits of TEs that currently cause minor health risks, (c) quantify TE risks associated with uptake to edible plants and potable water, and (d) consider multi-element contamination cases, where risks are cumulatively enhanced due to TE synergism.

AB - Trace elements (TEs) may have toxic effects to plants and humans; thus, countries and organizations impose maximum allowable regulation limits of their concentrations in soils. Usually such limits are placed in different categories according to soil use, soil properties or based on both attributes. However, some countries have regulation limits irrespective of differentiation in soil properties. In this review, we aimed at collecting TE regulation limits in soils from major countries and organizations around the globe, and critiquing them by assessing potential human health risks in the case of soils attaining the maximum allowable values. We explored the soil-to-human pathway and differentiated among three major exposures from TEs, i.e., residential, industrial and agricultural. We observed the existence of problems concerning TE regulation limits, among which the fact that limits across countries do not regulate the same TEs, not even a minimum number of TEs. This indicates that countries do not seem to agree on which regulation limits of TEs pose a high risk. Also, these regulation limits do not take into account TE mobility to neighbouring environment interphases such as plant, especially edible, and water matrices. Moreover, limits for same TEs are vastly diverse across countries; this indicates that those countries have conflicting information concerning TE-related health risks. Subsequently, we addressed this problem of diversity by quantifying resultant risks; we did that by calculating human health risk indices, taking into consideration the cases in which the highest allowable TE limits are attained in soil. Arsenic limits were found to generate a relatively high hazard quotient (HQ i , accounting for human intake over the maximum allowable oral reference dose for that same TE), indicating that its risk tends to be underestimated. Other TE limits, such as those of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn typically result in low HQ i , meaning that limits in their cases are rather overprotective. Our approach reveals the need of reducing diversity in regulation limits by drafting soil legislations of worldwide validity, since risks are common across countries. We suggest that new directions should strategically tend to (a) reduce limits of TEs with underestimated contribution to health risk (such as As), (b) cautiously increase limits of TEs that currently cause minor health risks, (c) quantify TE risks associated with uptake to edible plants and potable water, and (d) consider multi-element contamination cases, where risks are cumulatively enhanced due to TE synergism.

KW - Critical limits

KW - Health risk assessment

KW - Metal(loid)s

KW - Soils

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85062891573&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85062891573&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.envint.2019.03.039

DO - 10.1016/j.envint.2019.03.039

M3 - Review article

VL - 127

SP - 819

EP - 847

JO - Environmental International

JF - Environmental International

SN - 0160-4120

ER -