A lower limb exoskeleton control system based on steady state visual evoked potentials

No Sang Kwak, Klaus Muller, Seong Whan Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

79 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: We have developed an asynchronous brain-machine interface (BMI)-based lower limb exoskeleton control system based on steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs).

APPROACH: By decoding electroencephalography signals in real-time, users are able to walk forward, turn right, turn left, sit, and stand while wearing the exoskeleton. SSVEP stimulation is implemented with a visual stimulation unit, consisting of five light emitting diodes fixed to the exoskeleton. A canonical correlation analysis (CCA) method for the extraction of frequency information associated with the SSVEP was used in combination with k-nearest neighbors.

MAIN RESULTS: Overall, 11 healthy subjects participated in the experiment to evaluate performance. To achieve the best classification, CCA was first calibrated in an offline experiment. In the subsequent online experiment, our results exhibit accuracies of 91.3 ± 5.73%, a response time of 3.28 ± 1.82 s, an information transfer rate of 32.9 ± 9.13 bits/min, and a completion time of 1100 ± 154.92 s for the experimental parcour studied.

SIGNIFICANCE: The ability to achieve such high quality BMI control indicates that an SSVEP-based lower limb exoskeleton for gait assistance is becoming feasible.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)56009
Number of pages1
JournalJournal of Neural Engineering
Volume12
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Oct 1

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Visual Evoked Potentials
Bioelectric potentials
Lower Extremity
Brain-Computer Interfaces
Control systems
Brain
Photic Stimulation
Aptitude
Information Storage and Retrieval
Experiments
Electroencephalography
Gait
Reaction Time
Light emitting diodes
Decoding
Healthy Volunteers
Light

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

A lower limb exoskeleton control system based on steady state visual evoked potentials. / Kwak, No Sang; Muller, Klaus; Lee, Seong Whan.

In: Journal of Neural Engineering, Vol. 12, No. 5, 01.10.2015, p. 56009.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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