In clinical practice, most patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) undergo long-term follow-up without disease progression. There is insufficient real-world data about how closely and whether anything other than disease progression should be monitored. Herein, we performed a nationwide study of 470 patients with MGUS with a 10-year follow-up to determine the patterns of disease progression and other comorbidities. During the follow-up period, 158 of 470 patients with MGUS (33.62%) progressed to symptomatic monoclonal gammopathies. Most of these were multiple myeloma (134/470 patients, 28.51%), and those diagnosed within 2 years after diagnosis of MGUS was high. Approximately 30–50% of patients with MGUS had hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and osteoarthritis at the time of diagnosis, and these comorbidities were newly developed during the follow-up period in approximately 50% of the remaining patients with MGUS. Approximately 20–40% of patients with MGUS have acute or chronic kidney failure, thyroid disorders, disc disorders, peripheral neuropathy, myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure during the follow-up period. Altogether, when MGUS is diagnosed, close follow-up of the possibility of progression to multiple myeloma is required, especially within 2 years after diagnosis; simultaneously, various comorbidities should be considered and monitored during the follow-up of patients with MGUS. Continuous research is needed to establish appropriate follow-up guidelines.
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