A novel analysis of reverse draw and feed solute fluxes in forward osmosis membrane process

Bongchul Kim, Sangyoup Lee, Seungkwan Hong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Citations (Scopus)


A novel method to determine reverse draw and forward feed solute fluxes in forward osmosis (FO) membrane was developed to analyze FO performance more accurately. Specifically, apparent draw solute permeability (Bd) and feed solute permeability (Bf) were proposed, instead of relying on single solute permeability (B). Our results clearly demonstrated that both draw and feed fluxes were not well predicted with the solute permeability (B) measured by RO mode experiment, typically employed in FO membrane characterization. In this study, the draw and feed solute permeabilities were evaluated independently by the experimental protocols which simulated actual FO operation more closely. Much better agreement between experimental observations and theoretical predictions was obtained when both Bd and Bf were applied for the analysis of draw and feed solute fluxes, respectively. Thus, the utilization of apparent draw and feed solute permeabilities provides more precise assessment of draw solute loss and permeate water quality, which are very important for FO membrane process design and operation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)128-135
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Sep 7


  • Feed solute flux
  • Forward osmosis (FO) membrane
  • Internal concentration polarization (ICP)
  • Reverse draw solute flux
  • Solute permeability coefficient (B)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Mechanical Engineering


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