Periorbital necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a very rare disease with a mortality rate of 10% to 20%, requiring rapid diagnosis and active treatment. The most common causative organism is Group A β-hemolytic Streptococcus, and trauma, operative incisions, pre-existing ulcers, or injection sites may be predisposing factors for periorbital NF. In this study, the subject, who had a medical history of diabetes mellitus and chronic liver disease, developed periorbital NF suddenly and without any specific triggering factors, and Klebsiella pneumoniae was identified in a necrotic tissue biopsy. Klebsiella pneumoniae has not been reported as a causative organism of periorbital NF. It is believed that latent infection with K pneumoniae, which caused a brain abscess in the patient 2 years prior, caused inflammation around the periorbit by hematogenous spread. The authors were able to manage the patient successfully by performing total exenteration and reconstructing the affected site using a transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap procedure.
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