A review: flexible, stretchable multifunctional sensors and actuators for heart arrhythmia therapy

Seung Jo Kang, James Jungho Pak

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Cardiovascular disease is a very serious disease which results in about 30% of all global mortality. Atrial fibrillation (AF) causes rapid and irregular contractions resulting in stroke and cardiac arrest. AF is caused by abnormality of the heartbeat controlling electrical signal. Catheter ablation (CA) is often used to treat and remove the abnormal electrical source from the heart but it has limitations in sensing capability and spatial coverage. To overcome the limitations of the CA, new devices for improving the spatial capability have been reported. One of the most impressive methods is wrapping the heart surface with a flexible/stretchable film with an array of high-density multifunctional micro-sensors and actuators. With this technique, the overall heart surface may be diagnosed in real time and the AF may be treated much more effectively. The data acquisition from the array of multifunctional sensors is also very important for making the new devices useful. To operate the implanted device system, a battery is mostly used and it should be avoided to replace the battery by surgery. Therefore, various energy harvesting techniques or wireless energy transfer techniques to continuously feed the power to the system are under investigation. The development of these technologies was reviewed, and the current level of technology was reviewed and summarized.

Original languageEnglish
Article number22
JournalMicro and Nano Systems Letters
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Dec 1


  • 3D multifunctional integumentary membranes (3D-MIM)
  • Atrial fibrillation (af)
  • Balloon catheter
  • Cardiac ablation (ca)
  • Chronic implant device
  • Implantable device
  • Radiofrequency (RF) catheter

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering


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