A Smartphone App (AnSim) with Various Types and Forms of Messages Using the Transtheoretical Model for Cardiac Rehabilitation in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: Development and Usability Study

Jah Yeon Choi, Ji Bak Kim, Sunki Lee, Seo Joon Lee, Seung Eon Shin, Se Hyun Park, Eun Jin Park, Woohyeun Kim, Jin Oh Na, Cheol Ung Choi, Seung Woon Rha, Chang Gyu Park, Hong Seog Seo, Jeonghoon Ahn, Hyun Ghang Jeong, Eung Ju Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Despite strong evidence of clinical benefit, cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs are currently underutilized and smartphone-based CR strategies are thought to address this unmet need. However, data regarding the detailed process of development are scarce. Objective: This study focused on the development of a smartphone-based, patient-specific, messaging app for patients who have undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: The AnSim app was developed in collaboration with a multidisciplinary team that included cardiologists, psychiatrists, nurses, pharmacists, nutritionists, and rehabilitation doctors and therapists. First, a focus group interview was conducted, and the narratives of the patients were analyzed to identify their needs and preferences. Based on the results, health care experts and clinicians drafted messages into 5 categories: (1) general information regarding cardiovascular health and medications, (2) nutrition, (3) physical activity, (4) destressing, and (5) smoking cessation. In each category, 90 messages were developed according to 3 simplified steps of the transtheoretical model of behavioral change: (1) precontemplation, (2) contemplation and preparation, and (3) action and maintenance. After an internal review and feedback from potential users, a bank of 450 messages was developed. Results: The focus interview was conducted with 8 patients with PCI within 1 year, and 450 messages, including various forms of multimedia, were developed based on the transtheoretical model of behavioral change in each category. Positive feedback was obtained from the potential users (n=458). The mean Likert scale score was 3.95 (SD 0.39) and 3.91 (SD 0.39) for readability and usefulness, respectively, and several messages were refined based on the feedback. Finally, the patient-specific message delivery system was developed according to the baseline characteristics and stages of behavioral change in each participant. Conclusions: We developed an app (AnSim), which includes a bank of 450 patient-specific messages, that provides various medical information and CR programs regarding coronary heart disease. The detailed process of multidisciplinary collaboration over the course of the study provides a scientific basis for various medical professionals planning smartphone-based clinical research.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere23285
JournalJMIR Medical Informatics
Volume9
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Dec

Keywords

  • Cardiac rehabilitation
  • Coronary heart disease
  • Smartphone app

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Informatics
  • Health Information Management

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