Herbicides play key roles in agriculture. Aclonifen is a diphenyl ether herbicide that is widely used for sunflower, potato, corn, and wheat crops. Since it has a long half-life, it is considered persistent and can easily accumulate in the environment. Therefore, livestock and humans are at risk of exposure to aclonifen. Importantly, aclonifen is toxic to several mammals such as rats, mice, and dogs. However, the toxicity of aclonifen in cattle remains unclear. Therefore, we sought to investigate its toxicity in cattle using bovine mammary gland epithelial cells (MAC-T). We found that aclonifen induces sub-G1 phase arrest and represses MAC-T proliferation. In addition, aclonifen caused mitochondrial dysfunction, as evidenced by excessive ROS production and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, cytosolic and mitochondrial calcium homeostases were disrupted after aclonifen treatment. Moreover, aclonifen treatment caused alterations in the PI3K/AKT and MAPK signaling pathways, which are involved in the regulation of cell survival and death. In conclusion, aclonifen causes MAC-T cell death through mitochondrial dysfunction and the collapse of calcium homeostasis.
- Calcium homeostasis
- Cell death
- Cell signaling pathway
- Mammary gland epithelial cell
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agronomy and Crop Science
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis