Acoustic emission spectra and sonochemical activity in a 36 kHz sonoreactor

Younggyu Son, Myunghee Lim, Jeehyeong Khim, Muthupandian Ashokkumar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)


During ultrasound-induced cavitation in liquids, acoustic emissions at fundamental and harmonic frequencies can be detected. The effect of acoustic emissions at harmonic frequencies on the sonochemical and sonophysical activities has not been explored, especially in large-scale sonoreactors. In this study, the acoustic emissions in the range, 0-250 kHz in a 36 kHz sonoreactor with varying liquid heights were studied and compared with the sonochemical activities. The acoustic pressures at both fundamental and harmonics decreased drastically as the liquid height was increased due to the attenuation of sound energy. It was observed that the increase in input power resulted in only an increase in the acoustic emissions at derivative frequencies such as, harmonics and subharmonics. The sonochemical activity, evaluated in terms of sonochemiluminescence and H2O2 yield, was not significantly enhanced at higher input power levels. This suggests that at higher power levels, the "extra" acoustic energy is not effectively used to generate primary cavitation activity; rather it is converted to generate acoustic emissions at harmonic and subharmonic frequencies. This is an important observation for the design of energy efficiency large-scale sonochemical reactors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)16-21
Number of pages6
JournalUltrasonics Sonochemistry
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Jan


  • Acoustic emissions
  • Large-scale sonoreactor
  • Sonochemical activity
  • Sonochemiluminescence
  • Sound pressure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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