Purpose: Ureteroscopic removal of stones (URS) has been widely used to treat ureteral stones because it is comparatively safe, has a high success rate, and enables patients to rapidly return to their daily routines. However, some patients experience pain after URS, but the incidence of acute post-URS pain remains largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of acute postoperative pain after URS and the associated risk factors. Materials and Methods: Data for 143 consecutive patients who underwent URS from June 2008 to December 2010 were collected. After excluding 8 patients who developed intraoperative complications, the patients were divided into two groups according to postoperative pain on the first postoperative day. Acute postoperative pain was defined as a pain score greater than 4 on a visual analogue pain scale (normal range, 0 to 10). Various factors were analyzed to identify the risk factors that could predict acute postoperative pain after URS. Results: The stone-free rate without URS intraoperative complications was 95.5%. A total of 21 (14.6%) patients experienced postoperative pain on the first postoperative day. Young age, psychiatric illness, history of urinary tract infection, use of a stone basket, large stone size, and prolonged operation time were identified as risk factors for acute postoperative pain. Conclusions: The incidence of acute postoperative pain is not that low and should not be overlooked, because it is associated with postoperative complications that could result in an unscheduled hospital admission or visit. Active pain control should be contemplated after URS in young patients and in those with a history of urinary tract infection, psychiatric illness, large stone size, and prolonged operation time.
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