Background: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonist has a wide-ranging influence on multiple components of metabolic syndrome. The Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat is a useful animal model of metabolic syndrome. To determine genes related to metabolic syndrome, we examined overlapping genes that are simultaneously decreased by PPAR-γ agonists and increased in OLETF rats using microarrays in two different models. Methods: In the first microarray analysis, PPAR-γ agonist-treated db/db mice were compared to standard diet-fed db/db mice. In the second microarray analysis, OLETF rats were compared to Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats (control of OLETF rats). Results: Among the overlapping genes, in the present study, we validated that lipocalin-2 expression was significantly decreased in the visceral adipose tissue of PPAR-γ agonist-treated db/db mice compared to standard diet-fed db/db mice and increased in OLETF rats compared to LETO rats using real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, we showed for the first time that lipocalin-2 expression was significantly increased in the visceral adipose tissues of obese humans compared with nonobese humans. In addition, the expression level of lipocalin-2 in human visceral adipose tissue had a significant positive correlation with body mass index, serum interleukin-6, adipocyte fatty acid binding protein levels, and white blood cell count. Conclusion: Lipocalin-2 was confirmed to be a significant adipokine affected by PPAR-γ agonist and obesity in the present study. Also, for the first time in human visceral adipose tissue, it was determined that the expression of lipocalin-2 from obese humans was significantly increased and correlated with circulating inflammatory markers.
- PPAR gamma
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism