The unsteady flow and acoustic characteristics of the flapping wing are numerically investigated for a two-dimensional model of Bombus terrestris bumblebee at hovering and forward flight conditions. The Reynolds number Re, based on the maximum translational velocity of the wing and the chord length, is 8800 and the Mach number M is 0.0485. The computational results show that the flapping wing sound is generated by two different sound generation mechanisms. A primary dipole tone is generated at wing beat frequency by the transverse motion of the wing, while other higher frequency dipole tones are produced via vortex edge scattering during a tangential motion. It is also found that the primary tone is directional because of the torsional angle in wing motion. These features are only distinct for hovering, while in forward flight condition, the wing-vortex interaction becomes more prominent due to the free stream effect. Thereby, the sound pressure level spectrum is more broadband at higher frequencies and the frequency compositions become similar in all directions.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
- Acoustics and Ultrasonics