AGAMOUS-LIKE 6 is a floral promoter that negatively regulates the FLC/MAF clade genes and positively regulates FT in Arabidopsis

Seung Kwan Yoo, Xuelin Wu, Jong Seob Lee, Ji Hoon Ahn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

51 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

MADS-box genes encode a family of transcription factors that regulate diverse developmental programs in plants. The present work shows the regulation of flowering time by AGL6 through control of the transcription of both a subset of the FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) family genes and FT, two key regulators of flowering time. The agl6-1D mutant, in which AGL6 was activated by the 35S enhancer, showed an early flowering phenotype under both LD and SD conditions. Its early flowering was additively accelerated by CONSTANS (CO) overexpression. The agl6-1D mutation strongly suppressed the late flowering of fve-4 and fca-9 mutants. Endogenous AGL6 transcript accumulation was photoperiod-independent and the AGL6:GFP protein was preferentially localized in the nucleus. In agl6-1D plants, the expression of FLC, MADS AFFECTING FLOWERING (MAF) 4, and MAF5 was downregulated. Interestingly, late flowering of a functional FRIGIDA (FRI) FLC allele was dramatically suppressed by the agl6-1D mutation. AGL6 activation in the flc-3 background further enhanced FT expression, suggesting that AGL6 also regulates FT expression independently of FLC mRNA level. A near RNA-null ft-10 mutation completely suppressed early flowering of the agl6-1D plants, suggesting that FT is a major downstream output of AGL6. Transgenic plants overexpressing an artificial microRNA targeting AGL6 showed a late-flowering phenotype. In these plants, FT expression was downregulated, whereas FLC expression was upregulated. The present results suggest that AGL6 acts as a floral promoter with a dual role, the inhibition of the transcription of the FLC/MAF genes and the promotion of FT expression in Arabidopsis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)62-76
Number of pages15
JournalPlant Journal
Volume65
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011 Jan 1

Fingerprint

Arabidopsis
promoter regions
flowering
Mutation
Genes
Down-Regulation
genes
Phenotype
Genetically Modified Plants
Photoperiod
MicroRNAs
Transcription Factors
mutation
Alleles
RNA
Messenger RNA
transcription (genetics)
phenotype
mutants
Proteins

Keywords

  • AGAMOUS-LIKE 6
  • FLC
  • floral promoter
  • FT
  • MAF

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Plant Science
  • Cell Biology
  • Genetics

Cite this

AGAMOUS-LIKE 6 is a floral promoter that negatively regulates the FLC/MAF clade genes and positively regulates FT in Arabidopsis. / Yoo, Seung Kwan; Wu, Xuelin; Lee, Jong Seob; Ahn, Ji Hoon.

In: Plant Journal, Vol. 65, No. 1, 01.01.2011, p. 62-76.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "MADS-box genes encode a family of transcription factors that regulate diverse developmental programs in plants. The present work shows the regulation of flowering time by AGL6 through control of the transcription of both a subset of the FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) family genes and FT, two key regulators of flowering time. The agl6-1D mutant, in which AGL6 was activated by the 35S enhancer, showed an early flowering phenotype under both LD and SD conditions. Its early flowering was additively accelerated by CONSTANS (CO) overexpression. The agl6-1D mutation strongly suppressed the late flowering of fve-4 and fca-9 mutants. Endogenous AGL6 transcript accumulation was photoperiod-independent and the AGL6:GFP protein was preferentially localized in the nucleus. In agl6-1D plants, the expression of FLC, MADS AFFECTING FLOWERING (MAF) 4, and MAF5 was downregulated. Interestingly, late flowering of a functional FRIGIDA (FRI) FLC allele was dramatically suppressed by the agl6-1D mutation. AGL6 activation in the flc-3 background further enhanced FT expression, suggesting that AGL6 also regulates FT expression independently of FLC mRNA level. A near RNA-null ft-10 mutation completely suppressed early flowering of the agl6-1D plants, suggesting that FT is a major downstream output of AGL6. Transgenic plants overexpressing an artificial microRNA targeting AGL6 showed a late-flowering phenotype. In these plants, FT expression was downregulated, whereas FLC expression was upregulated. The present results suggest that AGL6 acts as a floral promoter with a dual role, the inhibition of the transcription of the FLC/MAF genes and the promotion of FT expression in Arabidopsis.",
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