The glyoxylate shunt (GS), involving isocitrate lyase (encoded by aceA) and malate synthase G (encoded by glcB), is known to play important roles under several conditions including oxidative stress, antibiotic defense, or certain carbon source metabolism (acetate and fatty acids). Comparative growth analyses of wild type (WT), aceA, and glcB null-strains revealed that aceA, but not glcB, is essential for cells to grow on either acetate (1%) or hexadecane (1%) in Acinetobacter oleivorans DR1. Interestingly. the aceA knockout strain was able to grow slower in 0.1% acetate than the parent strain. Northern Blot analysis showed that the expression of aceA was dependent on the concentration of acetate or H2O2, while glcB was constitutively expressed. Up-regulation of stress response-related genes and down-regulation of main carbon metabolism-participating genes in a ΔaceA mutant, compared to that in the parent strain, suggested that an ΔaceA mutant is susceptible to acetate toxicity, but grows slowly in 0.1% acetate. However, a ΔglcB mutant showed no growth defect in acetate or hexadecane and no susceptibility to H2O2, suggesting the presence of an alternative pathway to eliminate glyoxylate toxicity. A lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, encoded by a ldh) could possibly mediate the conversion from glyoxylate to oxalate based on our RNA-seq profiles. Oxalate production during hexadecane degradation and impaired growth of a ΔldhΔglcB double mutant in both acetate and hexadecane-supplemented media suggested that LDH is a potential detoxifying enzyme for glyoxylate. Our constructed LDH-overexpressing Escherichia coli strain also showed an important role of LDH under lactate, acetate, and glyoxylate metabolisms. The LDH-overexpressing E. coli strain, but not wild type strain, produced oxalate under glyoxylate condition. In conclusion, the GS is a main player, but alternative glyoxylate pathways exist during acetate and hexadecane metabolism in A. oleivorans DR1.
ASJC Scopus subject areas