Alternative risk assessment for dangerous chemicals in South Korea regulation: Comparing three modeling programs

Hyo Eun Lee, Jong Ryeul Sohn, Sang Hoon Byeon, Seok J. Yoon, Kyong Whan Moon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Unlike other countries, the Korean chemical industry does not clearly distinguish between industrial sites and residential areas. The 2012 Gumi Hydrogen Fluoride Accident revealed that chemical accidents could cause damage to nearby residents. Accordingly, the Chemicals Control Act was enacted in 2015, which requested industrial sites using chemicals to perform a risk assessment for all chemical facilities and to distribute the results to the local residents and governments. Industrial businesses had the responsibility of warning the local residents. In this study, two programs (Areal Location of Hazardous Atmospheres (ALOHA), Process Hazard Analysis Software Tool (PHAST)) were compared with Korea Off-site Risk Assessment Supporting Tool (KORA), which is the current representative risk assessment program used in Korea Chemicals Control Act. The five chemical substances (nitric acid, hydrogen chloride, ammonia, sulfuric acid, and formaldehyde) most commonly involved in chemical accidents were selected. The range of influence of ERPG-2 (Emergency Response Planning Guideline) on chemical accidents was modeled and the results compared. ALOHA was found to be the most suitable program for the determination of toxicity for nitrate acid and ammonia, KORA for hydrogen chloride and sulfuric acid, and PHAST for formaldehyde. To maximize the safety of many local residents and to prepare for chemical accidents, risk assessments should be conducted using a variety of risk assessment programs, and the worst-case damage radius should be determined.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1600
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Volume15
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Aug 1

Fingerprint

Republic of Korea
Chemical Hazard Release
Korea
Hydrochloric Acid
Atmosphere
Ammonia
Formaldehyde
Software
Hydrofluoric Acid
Chemical Industry
Nitric Acid
Local Government
Nitrates
Accidents
Emergencies
Guidelines
Safety
Acids

Keywords

  • ALOHA
  • Chemicals requiring preparation for accidents
  • KORA
  • PHAST
  • Risk assessment
  • The chemicals control act

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

@article{83e2be10592a4961acd326f5edb9ffd7,
title = "Alternative risk assessment for dangerous chemicals in South Korea regulation: Comparing three modeling programs",
abstract = "Unlike other countries, the Korean chemical industry does not clearly distinguish between industrial sites and residential areas. The 2012 Gumi Hydrogen Fluoride Accident revealed that chemical accidents could cause damage to nearby residents. Accordingly, the Chemicals Control Act was enacted in 2015, which requested industrial sites using chemicals to perform a risk assessment for all chemical facilities and to distribute the results to the local residents and governments. Industrial businesses had the responsibility of warning the local residents. In this study, two programs (Areal Location of Hazardous Atmospheres (ALOHA), Process Hazard Analysis Software Tool (PHAST)) were compared with Korea Off-site Risk Assessment Supporting Tool (KORA), which is the current representative risk assessment program used in Korea Chemicals Control Act. The five chemical substances (nitric acid, hydrogen chloride, ammonia, sulfuric acid, and formaldehyde) most commonly involved in chemical accidents were selected. The range of influence of ERPG-2 (Emergency Response Planning Guideline) on chemical accidents was modeled and the results compared. ALOHA was found to be the most suitable program for the determination of toxicity for nitrate acid and ammonia, KORA for hydrogen chloride and sulfuric acid, and PHAST for formaldehyde. To maximize the safety of many local residents and to prepare for chemical accidents, risk assessments should be conducted using a variety of risk assessment programs, and the worst-case damage radius should be determined.",
keywords = "ALOHA, Chemicals requiring preparation for accidents, KORA, PHAST, Risk assessment, The chemicals control act",
author = "Lee, {Hyo Eun} and Sohn, {Jong Ryeul} and Byeon, {Sang Hoon} and Yoon, {Seok J.} and Moon, {Kyong Whan}",
year = "2018",
month = "8",
day = "1",
doi = "10.3390/ijerph15081600",
language = "English",
volume = "15",
journal = "International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health",
issn = "1661-7827",
publisher = "Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)",
number = "8",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Alternative risk assessment for dangerous chemicals in South Korea regulation

T2 - Comparing three modeling programs

AU - Lee, Hyo Eun

AU - Sohn, Jong Ryeul

AU - Byeon, Sang Hoon

AU - Yoon, Seok J.

AU - Moon, Kyong Whan

PY - 2018/8/1

Y1 - 2018/8/1

N2 - Unlike other countries, the Korean chemical industry does not clearly distinguish between industrial sites and residential areas. The 2012 Gumi Hydrogen Fluoride Accident revealed that chemical accidents could cause damage to nearby residents. Accordingly, the Chemicals Control Act was enacted in 2015, which requested industrial sites using chemicals to perform a risk assessment for all chemical facilities and to distribute the results to the local residents and governments. Industrial businesses had the responsibility of warning the local residents. In this study, two programs (Areal Location of Hazardous Atmospheres (ALOHA), Process Hazard Analysis Software Tool (PHAST)) were compared with Korea Off-site Risk Assessment Supporting Tool (KORA), which is the current representative risk assessment program used in Korea Chemicals Control Act. The five chemical substances (nitric acid, hydrogen chloride, ammonia, sulfuric acid, and formaldehyde) most commonly involved in chemical accidents were selected. The range of influence of ERPG-2 (Emergency Response Planning Guideline) on chemical accidents was modeled and the results compared. ALOHA was found to be the most suitable program for the determination of toxicity for nitrate acid and ammonia, KORA for hydrogen chloride and sulfuric acid, and PHAST for formaldehyde. To maximize the safety of many local residents and to prepare for chemical accidents, risk assessments should be conducted using a variety of risk assessment programs, and the worst-case damage radius should be determined.

AB - Unlike other countries, the Korean chemical industry does not clearly distinguish between industrial sites and residential areas. The 2012 Gumi Hydrogen Fluoride Accident revealed that chemical accidents could cause damage to nearby residents. Accordingly, the Chemicals Control Act was enacted in 2015, which requested industrial sites using chemicals to perform a risk assessment for all chemical facilities and to distribute the results to the local residents and governments. Industrial businesses had the responsibility of warning the local residents. In this study, two programs (Areal Location of Hazardous Atmospheres (ALOHA), Process Hazard Analysis Software Tool (PHAST)) were compared with Korea Off-site Risk Assessment Supporting Tool (KORA), which is the current representative risk assessment program used in Korea Chemicals Control Act. The five chemical substances (nitric acid, hydrogen chloride, ammonia, sulfuric acid, and formaldehyde) most commonly involved in chemical accidents were selected. The range of influence of ERPG-2 (Emergency Response Planning Guideline) on chemical accidents was modeled and the results compared. ALOHA was found to be the most suitable program for the determination of toxicity for nitrate acid and ammonia, KORA for hydrogen chloride and sulfuric acid, and PHAST for formaldehyde. To maximize the safety of many local residents and to prepare for chemical accidents, risk assessments should be conducted using a variety of risk assessment programs, and the worst-case damage radius should be determined.

KW - ALOHA

KW - Chemicals requiring preparation for accidents

KW - KORA

KW - PHAST

KW - Risk assessment

KW - The chemicals control act

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85051086852&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85051086852&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3390/ijerph15081600

DO - 10.3390/ijerph15081600

M3 - Article

C2 - 30060550

AN - SCOPUS:85051086852

VL - 15

JO - International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

JF - International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

SN - 1661-7827

IS - 8

M1 - 1600

ER -