This study investigated the characteristics of patients with urolithiasis visiting an emergency department based on a national database system in Korea. This study spanned a period of three years from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2016. A retrospective census was conducted using the National Emergency Department Information System for urolithiasis patients. Patient data, including age, sex, insurance type, emergency department visit date and time, discharge date and time, emergency department treatment result, visit flow, and hospitalization route, were extracted and analyzed. Overall, 103,981, 112,083, and 120,647 patients/year during the 2014–2016 study period visited an emergency department with a diagnosis related to urolithiasis. Total monthly emergency department visits ranged from 35,927 in August (highest) to 24,008 in February. Overall, 13.2% of patients were hospitalized and the hospitalization rate was stable (estimated annual percent change) over the study period. Patients aged <9 years or ≥70 years and those with medical aid had higher hospitalization rates. A higher number of visits occurred in the hot season, on weekends, and in the 6 a.m. and 8 p.m. time slots. This nationwide study revealed that the percentage of patients visiting an emergency department with urolithiasis was higher in August, in the early morning, and at weekends.
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