Active interactions in R&D networks of Triple Helix institutional actors such as university–industry–government (U–I–G) can arguably improve innovative capabilities of countries. This paper examines the R&D network interactions in national R&D programs in Korea, one of the countries that struggle to improve innovative capabilities due to weak R&D network interactions. While most Triple Helix studies adhere to the traditional Triple Helix institutional actors, U–I–G, we expand them by subdividing industry into large enterprises, small and medium enterprises, and venture firms because firms have different R&D network characteristics depending on the types of firms. The Triple Helix analysis reveals that Korean government's direct policies for R&D networks were only temporarily successful in the policies' beginning years and failed to boost the synergy. The results suggest that the government should analyze carefully the unintended effects of the new policies before implementing them, check the feedback periodically, and encourage, not control, the R&D networks using indirect as well as direct policies.
- National R&D program
- R&D network
- Triple Helix
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Business and International Management
- Applied Psychology
- Management of Technology and Innovation