Objective To find the optimal needle insertion site for needle electromyography of the pronator teres (PT) muscle among commonly used sites. Methods: Fifty forearms of 25 healthy subjects were evaluated. Four expected needle insertion points were designated as follows. Point 0 was positioned at the midpoint between the medial epicondyle and medial border of biceps tendon in the elbow crease. Points 1, 2, and 3 were located 2 cm, 3.5 cm and 5 cm distal to point 0, respectively. We assumed that the thickness of PT and the distances between a vertical line from each point to the medial margin of the PT were significant parameters for finding the optimal site. Thus, we measured these parameters through ultrasonographic examination. Results: In men, the PT was thickest at point 2, and in women, at point 1. The distance between the expected needle insertion line and medial margin of PT was longest at point 1 in both men and women, and was statistically significant compared to points 2 and 3. Both men and women had neurovascular bundles located lateral to the expected needle insertion line. Conclusion: The most appropriate and safe needle electromyographic insertional site for the PT is 2-3.5 cm distal to the mid-point between the biceps tendon and medial epicondyle in the elbow crease and the needle should be inserted upward and medial.
ASJC Scopus subject areas