Black ginseng (BG), which is produced by repeated steaming and drying of fresh ginseng, has various pharmacological and therapeutic properties. This study investigated the anti-hyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of BG ethanolic extract in type 2 diabetic db/db mice. The levels of fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin levels and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values were decreased in the groups fed BG extract (BG) (100 and 900 mg/kg BW/day), compared to the control group (CON). In the BG compared with the CON, hepatic steatosis in the liver and the size of adipocytes in muscle tissue were improved. The administration of BG regulated the glucose transporter type (GLUT) 4 and 2, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α and γ in muscle and liver. Moreover, ginsenosides (Rh4, Rg5, and Rk1), which profiled by HPLC, regulated the markers for lipid metabolism and glucose metabolism; PPARs and GLUTs in muscle and C2C12 rather than liver cells and tissue. These findings suggested that ginsenosides (Rh4, Rg5, and Rk1) from BG extract can ameliorate type 2 diabetes through their anti-hyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects.
- Black ginseng
- Type 2 diabetic db/db mice
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Food Science
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology