Anti-inflammatory activities of Maillard reaction products from whey protein isolate fermented by Lactobacillus gasseri 4M13 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells

Da Hyun Kim, Su Hyun Chun, Nam Su Oh, Ji Young Lee, Kwang Won Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Maillard reaction products formed from whey protein isolate (WPI) and sugar have been shown to have an anti-inflammatory effect in vitro. Here, we incubated WPI and galactose (GWA) in an aqueous solution at 65°C for 24 h to produce a glycated conjugate, which was then fermented using Lactobacillus gasseri 4M13 to obtain the fermented product (F-GWA). We demonstrated that F-GWA had an anti-inflammatory effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. It reduced both LPS-stimulated nitric oxide production and LPS-stimulated increases in the gene expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and cyclooxygenase-2 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, F-GWA inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family. The glycation process was evaluated by measuring fluorescence intensity and the furosine concentration during the Maillard reaction to form GWA. The protein modifications of WPI were analyzed using MALDI-TOF tandem mass spectrometry. We found that the combination of the Maillard reaction and L. gasseri 4M13 fermentation increased the prebiotic properties of GWA as well as organic acid production, compared with the nonreacted WPI and galactose.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Dairy Science
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jan 1



  • anti-inflammation
  • galactosylation
  • Lactobacillus gasseri 4M13
  • Maillard reaction
  • whey protein isolate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Genetics

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