Apoptotic cell death is an active process mediated by various signaling pathways, which include the caspase cascade and the stress-activated protein kinase pathways. The caspase cascade is activated by two distinct routes: one from cell surface and the other from mitochondria. Activation of the route from cell surface requires the cellular components that include membrane receptors, adaptor proteins such as TRADD and FADD, and caspase-8, while activation of the other from mitochondria requires Apaf-1, caspase-9, and cytosolic cytochrome c. On the other hand, persistent stimulation of the stress-activated protein kinase pathway is also shown to mediate apoptosis in many cell types. Gene-targeting studies with jnk- or jip-null mice, in particular, strongly suggest that this signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in the cellular machinery for apoptosis.
- Stress-activated protein kinases
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology