Background: Three-dimensional (3D) video systems offer better depth perception and are associated with improved performance during endoscopic or robotic surgery. We compared the impact of a 3D video system with a two-dimensional (2D) video system on a simulation program for uniportal thoracoscopic surgery. Methods: We launched an endoscopic simulation program for uniportal surgery using a 3D high-definition video system for training surgeons and medical students. This program included three basic surgical skills: (I) peg transfer, (II) passing a needle through a 3-mm hole, and (III) suturing on a tailor-made skin model. We evaluated the impact of 3D vision during simulation for uniportal surgery in each task. Overall, 113 trainees (85 surgeons in training and 28 medical students) who had not experienced a 3D video system were registered in the program. The three surgical simulation skills were evaluated under 2D and 3D video systems. Results: The 3D video system allowed for shorter procedural times [92 participants (80.0%) in task 1, 102 (86.4%) in task 2, and 88 (74.6%) in task 3] and improved performance. Moreover, 65 s in task 1, 145 s in task 2, and 32 s in task 3 were shortened using the 3D video system. Post-simulation survey revealed improved depth perception (n=71, 60.2%) and handling of instruments on the uniportal surgical module (n=39, 33.1%) as advantages of the 3D video system during simulation. Sixty (50.8%) trainees were not negatively affected by the use of the 3D glasses; however, 53 (44.9%) felt eye discomfort during simulation. Conclusions: We concluded that the 3D video system has potential advantages, such as improved procedure time and handling of instruments, during basic simulation of uniportal surgery for surgical trainees.
- Three-dimensional video system
- Uniportal thoracoscopic surgery
- Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS)
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine