Applications of graphene in semiconductor devices as transparent contact layers, diffusion barriers, and thermal management layers

F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, Ji Hyun Kim

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

In this chapter, we discuss the use of graphene for multiple purposes in semiconductor devices, including AlGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes and as a diffusion barrier in contacts to Si. Precautions are needed to avoid degradation of the graphene during semiconductor processing. For example, graphene layers on SiO2/Si substrates were exposed to chemi cals or gases commonly used in semiconductor fabrication processes, including solvents (isopropanol, acetone), acids (HCl), bases (ammonium hydroxide), UV ozone, H2O, and O2 plasmas. The recovery of the initial graphene properties after these exposures was monitored by measuring both the layer resistance and Raman 2D peak position as a function of time in air or vacuum. Solvents and UV ozone were found to have the least affect while oxygen plasma exposure caused an increase in resistance of more than 3 orders of magnitude. Recovery is accelerated under vacuum but changes can per sist for more than 5 h. Careful design of fabrication schemes involving graphene is necessary to minimize these interactions with common processing chemicals. Optimized UV ozone cleaning of graphene layers on SiO2/Si substrates is shown to improve contact resistance of e-beam evaporated Ti/Au con tacts by 3 orders of magnitude (3 x 10-6 Q cm2) compared to untreated surfaces (4 x 10-3 Q cm2). Subsequent annealing at 300°C lowers the minimum value achieved to 7 x 10-7 Q cm2. Ozone exposure beyond an optimum time (6 min in these experiments) led to a sharp increase in sheet resistance of the graphene, producing degraded contact resistance. The oxida tion of graphene-based highly transparent contact layers to AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) was suppressed by the use of SiNx passivation layers. The oxidation is initiated at the unsaturated carbon atoms at the edges of the graphene and reduces the UV light inten sity and degrades the current-voltage characteristics. We also demonstrated large-area suspended graphene on GaN nano pillars, which were predefined by natural lithography and inductively coupled plasma etching. The thermal properties of the suspended and supported graphene were investigated by varying the underlying surface structures from flat-top to sharp-cone morphologies. The heat transfer was effective even when the contact area between the suspended graphene and the supporting substrate was small. The extremely high thermal conductivity of the graphene can improve the thermal management in GaN-based high-power electronic and opto electronics devices, which is critical for their long-term reli ability. Finally, the insertion of chemically vapor-deposited graphene layers between Al metallization and Si substrates and between Au and Ni metal layers on Si is shown to provide a significant reduction in spiking and intermixing of the metal contacts and reaction with the Si. The graphene prevents reac tion between Al and Si up to temperatures of at least 700°C and of Au and Ni up to 600°C.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationGraphene Science Handbook
Subtitle of host publicationSize-Dependent Properties
PublisherCRC Press
Pages371-379
Number of pages9
ISBN (Electronic)9781466591363
ISBN (Print)9781466591356
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Apr 21

Fingerprint

Graphite
Diffusion barriers
Semiconductor devices
semiconductor devices
Temperature control
Graphene
graphene
Ozone
ozone
Substrates
Contact resistance
contact resistance
ultraviolet radiation
Light emitting diodes
light emitting diodes
Metals
recovery
Ammonium Hydroxide
Vacuum
Semiconductor materials

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)
  • Engineering(all)
  • Materials Science(all)

Cite this

Ren, F., Pearton, S. J., & Kim, J. H. (2016). Applications of graphene in semiconductor devices as transparent contact layers, diffusion barriers, and thermal management layers. In Graphene Science Handbook: Size-Dependent Properties (pp. 371-379). CRC Press.

Applications of graphene in semiconductor devices as transparent contact layers, diffusion barriers, and thermal management layers. / Ren, F.; Pearton, S. J.; Kim, Ji Hyun.

Graphene Science Handbook: Size-Dependent Properties. CRC Press, 2016. p. 371-379.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Ren, F, Pearton, SJ & Kim, JH 2016, Applications of graphene in semiconductor devices as transparent contact layers, diffusion barriers, and thermal management layers. in Graphene Science Handbook: Size-Dependent Properties. CRC Press, pp. 371-379.
Ren F, Pearton SJ, Kim JH. Applications of graphene in semiconductor devices as transparent contact layers, diffusion barriers, and thermal management layers. In Graphene Science Handbook: Size-Dependent Properties. CRC Press. 2016. p. 371-379
Ren, F. ; Pearton, S. J. ; Kim, Ji Hyun. / Applications of graphene in semiconductor devices as transparent contact layers, diffusion barriers, and thermal management layers. Graphene Science Handbook: Size-Dependent Properties. CRC Press, 2016. pp. 371-379
@inbook{71ef16e7ea9a43c7af1c17d3c1da7704,
title = "Applications of graphene in semiconductor devices as transparent contact layers, diffusion barriers, and thermal management layers",
abstract = "In this chapter, we discuss the use of graphene for multiple purposes in semiconductor devices, including AlGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes and as a diffusion barrier in contacts to Si. Precautions are needed to avoid degradation of the graphene during semiconductor processing. For example, graphene layers on SiO2/Si substrates were exposed to chemi cals or gases commonly used in semiconductor fabrication processes, including solvents (isopropanol, acetone), acids (HCl), bases (ammonium hydroxide), UV ozone, H2O, and O2 plasmas. The recovery of the initial graphene properties after these exposures was monitored by measuring both the layer resistance and Raman 2D peak position as a function of time in air or vacuum. Solvents and UV ozone were found to have the least affect while oxygen plasma exposure caused an increase in resistance of more than 3 orders of magnitude. Recovery is accelerated under vacuum but changes can per sist for more than 5 h. Careful design of fabrication schemes involving graphene is necessary to minimize these interactions with common processing chemicals. Optimized UV ozone cleaning of graphene layers on SiO2/Si substrates is shown to improve contact resistance of e-beam evaporated Ti/Au con tacts by 3 orders of magnitude (3 x 10-6 Q cm2) compared to untreated surfaces (4 x 10-3 Q cm2). Subsequent annealing at 300°C lowers the minimum value achieved to 7 x 10-7 Q cm2. Ozone exposure beyond an optimum time (6 min in these experiments) led to a sharp increase in sheet resistance of the graphene, producing degraded contact resistance. The oxida tion of graphene-based highly transparent contact layers to AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) was suppressed by the use of SiNx passivation layers. The oxidation is initiated at the unsaturated carbon atoms at the edges of the graphene and reduces the UV light inten sity and degrades the current-voltage characteristics. We also demonstrated large-area suspended graphene on GaN nano pillars, which were predefined by natural lithography and inductively coupled plasma etching. The thermal properties of the suspended and supported graphene were investigated by varying the underlying surface structures from flat-top to sharp-cone morphologies. The heat transfer was effective even when the contact area between the suspended graphene and the supporting substrate was small. The extremely high thermal conductivity of the graphene can improve the thermal management in GaN-based high-power electronic and opto electronics devices, which is critical for their long-term reli ability. Finally, the insertion of chemically vapor-deposited graphene layers between Al metallization and Si substrates and between Au and Ni metal layers on Si is shown to provide a significant reduction in spiking and intermixing of the metal contacts and reaction with the Si. The graphene prevents reac tion between Al and Si up to temperatures of at least 700°C and of Au and Ni up to 600°C.",
author = "F. Ren and Pearton, {S. J.} and Kim, {Ji Hyun}",
year = "2016",
month = "4",
day = "21",
language = "English",
isbn = "9781466591356",
pages = "371--379",
booktitle = "Graphene Science Handbook",
publisher = "CRC Press",

}

TY - CHAP

T1 - Applications of graphene in semiconductor devices as transparent contact layers, diffusion barriers, and thermal management layers

AU - Ren, F.

AU - Pearton, S. J.

AU - Kim, Ji Hyun

PY - 2016/4/21

Y1 - 2016/4/21

N2 - In this chapter, we discuss the use of graphene for multiple purposes in semiconductor devices, including AlGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes and as a diffusion barrier in contacts to Si. Precautions are needed to avoid degradation of the graphene during semiconductor processing. For example, graphene layers on SiO2/Si substrates were exposed to chemi cals or gases commonly used in semiconductor fabrication processes, including solvents (isopropanol, acetone), acids (HCl), bases (ammonium hydroxide), UV ozone, H2O, and O2 plasmas. The recovery of the initial graphene properties after these exposures was monitored by measuring both the layer resistance and Raman 2D peak position as a function of time in air or vacuum. Solvents and UV ozone were found to have the least affect while oxygen plasma exposure caused an increase in resistance of more than 3 orders of magnitude. Recovery is accelerated under vacuum but changes can per sist for more than 5 h. Careful design of fabrication schemes involving graphene is necessary to minimize these interactions with common processing chemicals. Optimized UV ozone cleaning of graphene layers on SiO2/Si substrates is shown to improve contact resistance of e-beam evaporated Ti/Au con tacts by 3 orders of magnitude (3 x 10-6 Q cm2) compared to untreated surfaces (4 x 10-3 Q cm2). Subsequent annealing at 300°C lowers the minimum value achieved to 7 x 10-7 Q cm2. Ozone exposure beyond an optimum time (6 min in these experiments) led to a sharp increase in sheet resistance of the graphene, producing degraded contact resistance. The oxida tion of graphene-based highly transparent contact layers to AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) was suppressed by the use of SiNx passivation layers. The oxidation is initiated at the unsaturated carbon atoms at the edges of the graphene and reduces the UV light inten sity and degrades the current-voltage characteristics. We also demonstrated large-area suspended graphene on GaN nano pillars, which were predefined by natural lithography and inductively coupled plasma etching. The thermal properties of the suspended and supported graphene were investigated by varying the underlying surface structures from flat-top to sharp-cone morphologies. The heat transfer was effective even when the contact area between the suspended graphene and the supporting substrate was small. The extremely high thermal conductivity of the graphene can improve the thermal management in GaN-based high-power electronic and opto electronics devices, which is critical for their long-term reli ability. Finally, the insertion of chemically vapor-deposited graphene layers between Al metallization and Si substrates and between Au and Ni metal layers on Si is shown to provide a significant reduction in spiking and intermixing of the metal contacts and reaction with the Si. The graphene prevents reac tion between Al and Si up to temperatures of at least 700°C and of Au and Ni up to 600°C.

AB - In this chapter, we discuss the use of graphene for multiple purposes in semiconductor devices, including AlGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes and as a diffusion barrier in contacts to Si. Precautions are needed to avoid degradation of the graphene during semiconductor processing. For example, graphene layers on SiO2/Si substrates were exposed to chemi cals or gases commonly used in semiconductor fabrication processes, including solvents (isopropanol, acetone), acids (HCl), bases (ammonium hydroxide), UV ozone, H2O, and O2 plasmas. The recovery of the initial graphene properties after these exposures was monitored by measuring both the layer resistance and Raman 2D peak position as a function of time in air or vacuum. Solvents and UV ozone were found to have the least affect while oxygen plasma exposure caused an increase in resistance of more than 3 orders of magnitude. Recovery is accelerated under vacuum but changes can per sist for more than 5 h. Careful design of fabrication schemes involving graphene is necessary to minimize these interactions with common processing chemicals. Optimized UV ozone cleaning of graphene layers on SiO2/Si substrates is shown to improve contact resistance of e-beam evaporated Ti/Au con tacts by 3 orders of magnitude (3 x 10-6 Q cm2) compared to untreated surfaces (4 x 10-3 Q cm2). Subsequent annealing at 300°C lowers the minimum value achieved to 7 x 10-7 Q cm2. Ozone exposure beyond an optimum time (6 min in these experiments) led to a sharp increase in sheet resistance of the graphene, producing degraded contact resistance. The oxida tion of graphene-based highly transparent contact layers to AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) was suppressed by the use of SiNx passivation layers. The oxidation is initiated at the unsaturated carbon atoms at the edges of the graphene and reduces the UV light inten sity and degrades the current-voltage characteristics. We also demonstrated large-area suspended graphene on GaN nano pillars, which were predefined by natural lithography and inductively coupled plasma etching. The thermal properties of the suspended and supported graphene were investigated by varying the underlying surface structures from flat-top to sharp-cone morphologies. The heat transfer was effective even when the contact area between the suspended graphene and the supporting substrate was small. The extremely high thermal conductivity of the graphene can improve the thermal management in GaN-based high-power electronic and opto electronics devices, which is critical for their long-term reli ability. Finally, the insertion of chemically vapor-deposited graphene layers between Al metallization and Si substrates and between Au and Ni metal layers on Si is shown to provide a significant reduction in spiking and intermixing of the metal contacts and reaction with the Si. The graphene prevents reac tion between Al and Si up to temperatures of at least 700°C and of Au and Ni up to 600°C.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85052772826&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85052772826&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Chapter

SN - 9781466591356

SP - 371

EP - 379

BT - Graphene Science Handbook

PB - CRC Press

ER -