Recent studies have suggested that renal Nox is important in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, we investigated the effect of a novel pan-NOX-inhibitor, APX-115, on diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetic mice. Eight-week-old db/m and db/db mice were treated with APX-115 for 12 weeks. APX-115 was administered by oral gavage at a dose of 60 mg/kg per day. To compare the effects of APX-115 with a dual Nox1/Nox4 inhibitor, db/db mice were treated with GKT137831 according to the same protocol. APX-115 significantly improved insulin resistance in diabetic mice, similar to GKT137831. Oxidative stress as measured by plasma 8-isoprostane level was decreased in the APX-115 group compared with diabetic controls. All lipid profiles, both in plasma and tissues improved with Nox inhibition. APX-115 treatment decreased Nox1, Nox2, and Nox4 protein expression in the kidney. APX-115 decreased urinary albumin excretion and preserved creatinine level. In diabetic kidneys, APX-115 significantly improved mesangial expansion, but GKT137831 did not. In addition, F4/80 infiltration in the adipose tissue and kidney decreased with APX-115 treatment. We also found that TGF-β stimulated ROS generation in primary mouse mesangial cells (pMMCs) from wild-type, Nox1 KO, and Duox1 KO mice, but did not induce Nox activity in pMMCs from Nox2 knockout (KO), Nox4 KO, or Duox2 KO mice. These results indicate that activating Nox2, Nox4, or Duox2 in pMMCs is essential for TGF-β-mediated ROS generation. Our findings suggest that APX-115 may be as effective or may provide better protection than the dual Nox1/Nox4 inhibitor, and pan-Nox inhibition with APX-115 might be a promising therapy for diabetic nephropathy.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology