Asian sand dust enhances the inflammatory response and mucin gene expression in the middle ear

Jiwon Chang, Yoonyoung Go, Moo Kyun Park, Sung Won Chae, Seon Heui Lee, Jae Jun Song

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives. Asia sand dust (ASD) is known to cause various human diseases including respiratory infection. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of ASD on inflammatory response in human middle ear epithelial cells (HMEECs) in vitro and in vivo. Methods. Cell viability was assessed using the cell counting kit-8 assay. The mRNA levels of various genes including COX2, TNF-α, MUC5AC, MUC5B, TP53, BAX, BCL-2, NOX4, and SOD1 were analyzed using semiquantitative realtime polymerase chain reaction. COX-2 protein levels were determined by western blot analysis. Sprague Dawley rats were used for in vivo investigations of inflammatory reactions in the middle ear epithelium as a result of ASD injection. Results. We observed dose-dependent decrease in HMEEC viability. ASD exposure significantly increased COX-2, TNF-α, MUC5AC, and MUC5B mRNA expression. Also, ASD affected the mRNA levels of apoptosis- and oxidative stressrelated genes. Western blot analysis revealed a dose-dependent increase in COX-2 production. Animal studies also demonstrated anASD-induced inflammatory response in the middle ear epithelium. Conclusion. Environmental ASD exposure can result in the development of otitis media.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)198-205
Number of pages8
JournalClinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Sept
Externally publishedYes


  • Asian Sand Dust
  • Cyclooxygenase 2
  • MUC5AC
  • MUC5B
  • Otitis Media

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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