Association between urban greenness and depressive symptoms: Evaluation of greenness using various indicators

Hyeonjin Song, Kevin James Lane, Honghyok Kim, Hyomi Kim, Garam Byun, Minh Le, Yongsoo Choi, Chan Ryul Park, Jong-Tae Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

An increasing number of studies have suggested benefits of greenness exposure on mental health. We examined the association between urban greenness and depressive symptoms in adults in the general population living in the seven major cities in Korea (N = 65,128). Using data from the Korean Community Health Survey 2009, depressive symptoms were measured on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Greenness was assessed using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and land-use data (forest area and forest volume). Logistic regression models were fitted to adjust for potential confounders. Individuals in regions with the highest NDVI (quartile 4) had the lowest odds for depressive symptoms compared to quartile 1, after adjusting for potential confounders (OR = 0.813; 95% CI: 0.747, 0.884). For all greenness indicators except for forest area per district area (%), the highest rate of depressive symptoms was found for the individuals in the lowest quartile of greenness (quartile 1) and the lowest rate of depressive symptoms for those in the highest quartile of greenness (quartile 4). We found an inverse association between urban greenness and depressive symptoms, which was consistent across a variety of greenness indicators. Our study suggests health benefits of greenness and could provide a scientific basis for policy making and urban planning.

LanguageEnglish
Article number173
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Volume16
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jan 2

Fingerprint

Symptom Assessment
Depression
Logistic Models
City Planning
Policy Making
Insurance Benefits
Korea
Health Surveys
Epidemiologic Studies
Mental Health
Population
Forests

Keywords

  • Depressive symptoms
  • Logistic regression
  • Normalized difference vegetation index
  • Urban greenness

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

Association between urban greenness and depressive symptoms : Evaluation of greenness using various indicators. / Song, Hyeonjin; Lane, Kevin James; Kim, Honghyok; Kim, Hyomi; Byun, Garam; Le, Minh; Choi, Yongsoo; Park, Chan Ryul; Lee, Jong-Tae.

In: International journal of environmental research and public health, Vol. 16, No. 2, 173, 02.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Song, Hyeonjin ; Lane, Kevin James ; Kim, Honghyok ; Kim, Hyomi ; Byun, Garam ; Le, Minh ; Choi, Yongsoo ; Park, Chan Ryul ; Lee, Jong-Tae. / Association between urban greenness and depressive symptoms : Evaluation of greenness using various indicators. In: International journal of environmental research and public health. 2019 ; Vol. 16, No. 2.
@article{1ff1d5bbb3464f50a7eaf4e20abd539e,
title = "Association between urban greenness and depressive symptoms: Evaluation of greenness using various indicators",
abstract = "An increasing number of studies have suggested benefits of greenness exposure on mental health. We examined the association between urban greenness and depressive symptoms in adults in the general population living in the seven major cities in Korea (N = 65,128). Using data from the Korean Community Health Survey 2009, depressive symptoms were measured on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Greenness was assessed using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and land-use data (forest area and forest volume). Logistic regression models were fitted to adjust for potential confounders. Individuals in regions with the highest NDVI (quartile 4) had the lowest odds for depressive symptoms compared to quartile 1, after adjusting for potential confounders (OR = 0.813; 95{\%} CI: 0.747, 0.884). For all greenness indicators except for forest area per district area ({\%}), the highest rate of depressive symptoms was found for the individuals in the lowest quartile of greenness (quartile 1) and the lowest rate of depressive symptoms for those in the highest quartile of greenness (quartile 4). We found an inverse association between urban greenness and depressive symptoms, which was consistent across a variety of greenness indicators. Our study suggests health benefits of greenness and could provide a scientific basis for policy making and urban planning.",
keywords = "Depressive symptoms, Logistic regression, Normalized difference vegetation index, Urban greenness",
author = "Hyeonjin Song and Lane, {Kevin James} and Honghyok Kim and Hyomi Kim and Garam Byun and Minh Le and Yongsoo Choi and Park, {Chan Ryul} and Jong-Tae Lee",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
day = "2",
doi = "10.3390/ijerph16020173",
language = "English",
volume = "16",
journal = "International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health",
issn = "1661-7827",
publisher = "Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Association between urban greenness and depressive symptoms

T2 - International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

AU - Song, Hyeonjin

AU - Lane, Kevin James

AU - Kim, Honghyok

AU - Kim, Hyomi

AU - Byun, Garam

AU - Le, Minh

AU - Choi, Yongsoo

AU - Park, Chan Ryul

AU - Lee, Jong-Tae

PY - 2019/1/2

Y1 - 2019/1/2

N2 - An increasing number of studies have suggested benefits of greenness exposure on mental health. We examined the association between urban greenness and depressive symptoms in adults in the general population living in the seven major cities in Korea (N = 65,128). Using data from the Korean Community Health Survey 2009, depressive symptoms were measured on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Greenness was assessed using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and land-use data (forest area and forest volume). Logistic regression models were fitted to adjust for potential confounders. Individuals in regions with the highest NDVI (quartile 4) had the lowest odds for depressive symptoms compared to quartile 1, after adjusting for potential confounders (OR = 0.813; 95% CI: 0.747, 0.884). For all greenness indicators except for forest area per district area (%), the highest rate of depressive symptoms was found for the individuals in the lowest quartile of greenness (quartile 1) and the lowest rate of depressive symptoms for those in the highest quartile of greenness (quartile 4). We found an inverse association between urban greenness and depressive symptoms, which was consistent across a variety of greenness indicators. Our study suggests health benefits of greenness and could provide a scientific basis for policy making and urban planning.

AB - An increasing number of studies have suggested benefits of greenness exposure on mental health. We examined the association between urban greenness and depressive symptoms in adults in the general population living in the seven major cities in Korea (N = 65,128). Using data from the Korean Community Health Survey 2009, depressive symptoms were measured on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Greenness was assessed using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and land-use data (forest area and forest volume). Logistic regression models were fitted to adjust for potential confounders. Individuals in regions with the highest NDVI (quartile 4) had the lowest odds for depressive symptoms compared to quartile 1, after adjusting for potential confounders (OR = 0.813; 95% CI: 0.747, 0.884). For all greenness indicators except for forest area per district area (%), the highest rate of depressive symptoms was found for the individuals in the lowest quartile of greenness (quartile 1) and the lowest rate of depressive symptoms for those in the highest quartile of greenness (quartile 4). We found an inverse association between urban greenness and depressive symptoms, which was consistent across a variety of greenness indicators. Our study suggests health benefits of greenness and could provide a scientific basis for policy making and urban planning.

KW - Depressive symptoms

KW - Logistic regression

KW - Normalized difference vegetation index

KW - Urban greenness

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85059918032&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85059918032&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3390/ijerph16020173

DO - 10.3390/ijerph16020173

M3 - Article

VL - 16

JO - International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

JF - International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

SN - 1661-7827

IS - 2

M1 - 173

ER -