A higher proportion of small, dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL) is known to be associated with a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease in association with metabolic syndrome (MS). Hypertension (HTN) is one of the known risk factors for MS. However, whether HTN is associated with sdLDL in patients without MS is not yet clear. The lipid profiles, including low-density- lipoprotein (LDL) subfractions, of 383 consecutive subjects were evaluated. The patients without MS consisted of 198 hypertensive patients (non-MS/HTN group) and 108 normotensive subjects (non-MS/non-HTN group). The peak and mean particle diameter of LDL were measured by gradient gel electrophoresis. Plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), HDL cholesterol/Apo A1, LDL-C/ApoB and Apo(A1, B, CII and E) levels did not differ between the non-MS/non-HTN and non-MS/HTN groups. When analyzing LDL subfraction, the absolute amount of patterns A and B was not different between the non-MS/non-HTN and non-MS/HTN groups. Compared with the non-MS/non-HTN groups, the proportion of sdLDL was higher in the non-MS/HTN group (37.7% versus 39.9%, P<0.046), but not significant after adjustment of waist circumference, serum TG, age and statin usage. The proportion of sdLDL to total LDL was higher in hypertensive subjects, even those without MS, than in normotensive subjects. However, this difference of LDL subfraction in hypertensive patients is associated with higher waist circumference, higher serum TG, older age and more statin usage. This result suggests that HTN may contribute to atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction with associated risk factors that influence LDL size.
- cardiovascular disease
- dense low-density lipoprotein
- metabolic syndrome
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine