Association of meal frequency with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults: From the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES)

Chan Hee Jung, Ji Sung Lee, Hee Jung Ahn, Jin Sun Choi, Min Young Noh, Ji Jeung Lee, Eun Young Lee, Jeong Hyun Lim, Young Ran Lee, So Yoon Yoon, Chong Hwa Kim, Dong Hyeok Cho, Young Sik Choi, Kyung Mook Choi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background: Although previous studies have established a close relationship between caloric intake and metabolic syndrome, there is limited research exploring the impact of meal frequency adjusted by caloric intake on metabolic syndrome (MetS). Objective: To evaluate the association of meal frequency and MetS after adjusting for confounding factors including caloric intake in Korean men and women. Methods: We analyzed the national representative data of a total 12,389 adults (5171 men, 7218 women) from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010-2012. Subjects were categorized as eating 3 meals/day (MF3) or 2 or fewer meals/day (MF ≤ 2). Daily caloric intake was calculated using CAN-Pro 4.0 (The Korean Nutrition Society, Seoul, Korea). Results: The prevalence of components of MetS differed significantly according to meal frequency in both men and women. In an unadjusted analysis, the prevalence of MetS in women was significantly higher in the MF3 group than the MF ≤ 2 group (27.5% vs. 17.8%, P < 0.001), whereas the prevalence of MetS in men did not differ between the MF3 and MF ≤ 2 groups (24.6% vs. 22.7%, P = 0.281). However, after adjusting for age, caloric intake, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, income, and education level, men in the MF ≤ 2 group had an increased risk of metabolic syndrome compared to men in the MF3 group (OR = 1.37, 95%, CI = 1.12-1.67). On the other hand, meal frequency did not affect the risk of metabolic syndrome in women after adjusting for confounding factors including caloric intake (OR = 1.09, 95%, CI = 0.90-1.31). Conclusions: This study suggests that lower meal frequency adjusted for caloric intake, physical activity, age, smoking, alcohol, income, and education may be associated with increased risk of MetS in Korean men.

Original languageEnglish
Article number77
JournalDiabetology and Metabolic Syndrome
Volume9
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Oct 3

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Nutrition Surveys
Korea
Meals
Energy Intake
Smoking
Exercise
Physical Education and Training
Alcohol Drinking
Eating
Alcohols
Education

Keywords

  • Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
  • Meal frequency
  • Metabolic syndrome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Cite this

Association of meal frequency with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults : From the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). / Jung, Chan Hee; Lee, Ji Sung; Ahn, Hee Jung; Choi, Jin Sun; Noh, Min Young; Lee, Ji Jeung; Lee, Eun Young; Lim, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Young Ran; Yoon, So Yoon; Kim, Chong Hwa; Cho, Dong Hyeok; Choi, Young Sik; Choi, Kyung Mook.

In: Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome, Vol. 9, No. 1, 77, 03.10.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Jung, Chan Hee ; Lee, Ji Sung ; Ahn, Hee Jung ; Choi, Jin Sun ; Noh, Min Young ; Lee, Ji Jeung ; Lee, Eun Young ; Lim, Jeong Hyun ; Lee, Young Ran ; Yoon, So Yoon ; Kim, Chong Hwa ; Cho, Dong Hyeok ; Choi, Young Sik ; Choi, Kyung Mook. / Association of meal frequency with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults : From the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). In: Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome. 2017 ; Vol. 9, No. 1.
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abstract = "Background: Although previous studies have established a close relationship between caloric intake and metabolic syndrome, there is limited research exploring the impact of meal frequency adjusted by caloric intake on metabolic syndrome (MetS). Objective: To evaluate the association of meal frequency and MetS after adjusting for confounding factors including caloric intake in Korean men and women. Methods: We analyzed the national representative data of a total 12,389 adults (5171 men, 7218 women) from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010-2012. Subjects were categorized as eating 3 meals/day (MF3) or 2 or fewer meals/day (MF ≤ 2). Daily caloric intake was calculated using CAN-Pro 4.0 (The Korean Nutrition Society, Seoul, Korea). Results: The prevalence of components of MetS differed significantly according to meal frequency in both men and women. In an unadjusted analysis, the prevalence of MetS in women was significantly higher in the MF3 group than the MF ≤ 2 group (27.5{\%} vs. 17.8{\%}, P < 0.001), whereas the prevalence of MetS in men did not differ between the MF3 and MF ≤ 2 groups (24.6{\%} vs. 22.7{\%}, P = 0.281). However, after adjusting for age, caloric intake, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, income, and education level, men in the MF ≤ 2 group had an increased risk of metabolic syndrome compared to men in the MF3 group (OR = 1.37, 95{\%}, CI = 1.12-1.67). On the other hand, meal frequency did not affect the risk of metabolic syndrome in women after adjusting for confounding factors including caloric intake (OR = 1.09, 95{\%}, CI = 0.90-1.31). Conclusions: This study suggests that lower meal frequency adjusted for caloric intake, physical activity, age, smoking, alcohol, income, and education may be associated with increased risk of MetS in Korean men.",
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T1 - Association of meal frequency with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults

T2 - From the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES)

AU - Jung, Chan Hee

AU - Lee, Ji Sung

AU - Ahn, Hee Jung

AU - Choi, Jin Sun

AU - Noh, Min Young

AU - Lee, Ji Jeung

AU - Lee, Eun Young

AU - Lim, Jeong Hyun

AU - Lee, Young Ran

AU - Yoon, So Yoon

AU - Kim, Chong Hwa

AU - Cho, Dong Hyeok

AU - Choi, Young Sik

AU - Choi, Kyung Mook

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N2 - Background: Although previous studies have established a close relationship between caloric intake and metabolic syndrome, there is limited research exploring the impact of meal frequency adjusted by caloric intake on metabolic syndrome (MetS). Objective: To evaluate the association of meal frequency and MetS after adjusting for confounding factors including caloric intake in Korean men and women. Methods: We analyzed the national representative data of a total 12,389 adults (5171 men, 7218 women) from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010-2012. Subjects were categorized as eating 3 meals/day (MF3) or 2 or fewer meals/day (MF ≤ 2). Daily caloric intake was calculated using CAN-Pro 4.0 (The Korean Nutrition Society, Seoul, Korea). Results: The prevalence of components of MetS differed significantly according to meal frequency in both men and women. In an unadjusted analysis, the prevalence of MetS in women was significantly higher in the MF3 group than the MF ≤ 2 group (27.5% vs. 17.8%, P < 0.001), whereas the prevalence of MetS in men did not differ between the MF3 and MF ≤ 2 groups (24.6% vs. 22.7%, P = 0.281). However, after adjusting for age, caloric intake, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, income, and education level, men in the MF ≤ 2 group had an increased risk of metabolic syndrome compared to men in the MF3 group (OR = 1.37, 95%, CI = 1.12-1.67). On the other hand, meal frequency did not affect the risk of metabolic syndrome in women after adjusting for confounding factors including caloric intake (OR = 1.09, 95%, CI = 0.90-1.31). Conclusions: This study suggests that lower meal frequency adjusted for caloric intake, physical activity, age, smoking, alcohol, income, and education may be associated with increased risk of MetS in Korean men.

AB - Background: Although previous studies have established a close relationship between caloric intake and metabolic syndrome, there is limited research exploring the impact of meal frequency adjusted by caloric intake on metabolic syndrome (MetS). Objective: To evaluate the association of meal frequency and MetS after adjusting for confounding factors including caloric intake in Korean men and women. Methods: We analyzed the national representative data of a total 12,389 adults (5171 men, 7218 women) from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010-2012. Subjects were categorized as eating 3 meals/day (MF3) or 2 or fewer meals/day (MF ≤ 2). Daily caloric intake was calculated using CAN-Pro 4.0 (The Korean Nutrition Society, Seoul, Korea). Results: The prevalence of components of MetS differed significantly according to meal frequency in both men and women. In an unadjusted analysis, the prevalence of MetS in women was significantly higher in the MF3 group than the MF ≤ 2 group (27.5% vs. 17.8%, P < 0.001), whereas the prevalence of MetS in men did not differ between the MF3 and MF ≤ 2 groups (24.6% vs. 22.7%, P = 0.281). However, after adjusting for age, caloric intake, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, income, and education level, men in the MF ≤ 2 group had an increased risk of metabolic syndrome compared to men in the MF3 group (OR = 1.37, 95%, CI = 1.12-1.67). On the other hand, meal frequency did not affect the risk of metabolic syndrome in women after adjusting for confounding factors including caloric intake (OR = 1.09, 95%, CI = 0.90-1.31). Conclusions: This study suggests that lower meal frequency adjusted for caloric intake, physical activity, age, smoking, alcohol, income, and education may be associated with increased risk of MetS in Korean men.

KW - Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

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KW - Metabolic syndrome

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