Atomic-layer-deposited TiO2-SnZnO/carbon nanofiber composite as a highly stable, flexible and freestanding anode material for lithium-ion batteries

Bhavana Joshi, Edmund Samuel, Min Woo Kim, Sera Park, Mark T. Swihart, Woo Young Yoon, Sam S. Yoon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


We demonstrate the synthesis of a highly stable, freestanding and flexible anode material for lithium-ion batteries created by depositing a conformal coating of TiO2 on a SnZnO/carbon nanofiber (CNF) composite using atomic layer deposition. The term SnZnO is used here because metallic Sn is observed in the SnZnO/CNF composites after annealing under argon gas. The elemental composition of the material was confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, while the oxidation states of the elements were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy showed that the core regions of the composite nanofibers were almost uniformly covered by a TiO2 shell. The specific capacities of the TiO2-coated and uncoated samples at a high current density (5C) were 413 and 159 mAh·g−1, respectively. An analysis of the surface morphology after cycling indicated that the stability of the solid electrolyte interface layer increased after the formation of the protective conformal TiO2 layer. As a result, no signs of anode degradation were observed even after 700 cycles at a current density of 5C. We attribute this exceptional stability to the buffering of the anode material by the protective coating during volumetric expansion.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)72-81
Number of pages10
JournalChemical Engineering Journal
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Apr 15


  • Anode
  • Atomic layer deposition
  • Carbon nanofiber
  • Electrospinning
  • Lithium-ion battery
  • SnZnO

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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