Belief Propagation for Energy Efficiency Maximization in Wireless Heterogeneous Networks

Sang Hyun Lee, Mintae Kim, Hunmin Shin, Inkyu Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


In this article, we study an energy efficient management of two-tier heterogeneous cellular networks (HetNets) which consist of one macro base station (BS) and multiple micro base stations. This article presents a distributed user association algorithm that maximizes the network-wide energy efficiency (EE) in HetNets. A subset of BSs that support only a small number of users can be turned off to save the energy consumption. By turning off BSs in the HetNet and offloading serving users to adjacent active BSs, the network-wide energy consumption is minimized, while the sum throughput is maximized. To solve the problem efficiently, we introduce a new approach based on a message-passing framework and derive a distributed load balancing algorithm. The proposed method provides a very efficient solution with reduced computational complexity compared to existing schemes. Simulation results verify that the proposed algorithm outperforms other conventional load balancing strategies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9199557
Pages (from-to)56-68
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Jan


  • Energy-efficiency maximization
  • belief propagation
  • wireless heterogeneous networks

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science Applications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Applied Mathematics


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