Biotransformation products and mineralization potential for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in abiotic versus biological degradation pathways with anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) and Geobacter metallireducens

Man Jae Kwon, Kevin Thomas Finneran

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

32 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study investigated extracellular electron shuttle-mediated RDX biodegradation and the distribution of ring cleavage metabolites generated by biological degradation (cells) versus the products formed by abiotic degradation (reduced electron shuttles), and when the two pathways were acting simultaneously. All pathways were influenced by pH. Buffered suspensions (pH 6.8/7.9/9.2) were performed with cell-free anthrahydroquinone-2,6-disulfonate as the sole electron donor, cells (Geobacter metallireducens) + acetate, or cells/acetate + anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate as an electron shuttle. The metabolites identified included methylenedinitramine, formaldehyde, nitrous oxide, nitrite, ammonium and carbon dioxide. As pH increased, the rates of RDX reduction by AH2QDS also increased. Cells alone reduced RDX faster at the lower pH values. However, at all pH the rates of the electron shuttle-mediated pathways were consistently the fastest, and the proportion of carbon present as formaldehyde, which is a precursor to mineralization, was highest in the presence of electron shuttles. Formaldehyde accounted for 45/51/54% of the carbon in electron shuttle amended cell suspensions as opposed to 13/42/45% of carbon without shuttles at the pH 6.8/7.9/9.2, respectively. Approximately 7-20% of RDX was mineralized to CO2 in the presence of cells at all pH tested; AQDS increased the extent of 14CO2 produced. Nitrous oxide and nitrite were end products in the strictly abiotic pathway, but nitrite was depleted in the presence of cells to form ammonium. Understanding the different products formed in the abiotic versus biological pathways and the influence of pH is critical to developing mixed biotic-abiotic remediation strategies for RDX.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)705-715
Number of pages11
JournalBiodegradation
Volume19
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2008 Sep 1
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Geobacter
triazine
biotransformation
Biotransformation
mineralization
Degradation
electron
Electrons
degradation
Nitrites
formaldehyde
Formaldehyde
nitrite
Carbon
Nitrous Oxide
Metabolites
nitrous oxide
Ammonium Compounds
metabolite
acetate

Keywords

  • Bioremediation
  • Electron shuttling
  • Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms
  • RDX

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology

Cite this

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title = "Biotransformation products and mineralization potential for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in abiotic versus biological degradation pathways with anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) and Geobacter metallireducens",
abstract = "This study investigated extracellular electron shuttle-mediated RDX biodegradation and the distribution of ring cleavage metabolites generated by biological degradation (cells) versus the products formed by abiotic degradation (reduced electron shuttles), and when the two pathways were acting simultaneously. All pathways were influenced by pH. Buffered suspensions (pH 6.8/7.9/9.2) were performed with cell-free anthrahydroquinone-2,6-disulfonate as the sole electron donor, cells (Geobacter metallireducens) + acetate, or cells/acetate + anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate as an electron shuttle. The metabolites identified included methylenedinitramine, formaldehyde, nitrous oxide, nitrite, ammonium and carbon dioxide. As pH increased, the rates of RDX reduction by AH2QDS also increased. Cells alone reduced RDX faster at the lower pH values. However, at all pH the rates of the electron shuttle-mediated pathways were consistently the fastest, and the proportion of carbon present as formaldehyde, which is a precursor to mineralization, was highest in the presence of electron shuttles. Formaldehyde accounted for 45/51/54{\%} of the carbon in electron shuttle amended cell suspensions as opposed to 13/42/45{\%} of carbon without shuttles at the pH 6.8/7.9/9.2, respectively. Approximately 7-20{\%} of RDX was mineralized to CO2 in the presence of cells at all pH tested; AQDS increased the extent of 14CO2 produced. Nitrous oxide and nitrite were end products in the strictly abiotic pathway, but nitrite was depleted in the presence of cells to form ammonium. Understanding the different products formed in the abiotic versus biological pathways and the influence of pH is critical to developing mixed biotic-abiotic remediation strategies for RDX.",
keywords = "Bioremediation, Electron shuttling, Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms, RDX",
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year = "2008",
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language = "English",
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T1 - Biotransformation products and mineralization potential for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in abiotic versus biological degradation pathways with anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) and Geobacter metallireducens

AU - Kwon, Man Jae

AU - Finneran, Kevin Thomas

PY - 2008/9/1

Y1 - 2008/9/1

N2 - This study investigated extracellular electron shuttle-mediated RDX biodegradation and the distribution of ring cleavage metabolites generated by biological degradation (cells) versus the products formed by abiotic degradation (reduced electron shuttles), and when the two pathways were acting simultaneously. All pathways were influenced by pH. Buffered suspensions (pH 6.8/7.9/9.2) were performed with cell-free anthrahydroquinone-2,6-disulfonate as the sole electron donor, cells (Geobacter metallireducens) + acetate, or cells/acetate + anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate as an electron shuttle. The metabolites identified included methylenedinitramine, formaldehyde, nitrous oxide, nitrite, ammonium and carbon dioxide. As pH increased, the rates of RDX reduction by AH2QDS also increased. Cells alone reduced RDX faster at the lower pH values. However, at all pH the rates of the electron shuttle-mediated pathways were consistently the fastest, and the proportion of carbon present as formaldehyde, which is a precursor to mineralization, was highest in the presence of electron shuttles. Formaldehyde accounted for 45/51/54% of the carbon in electron shuttle amended cell suspensions as opposed to 13/42/45% of carbon without shuttles at the pH 6.8/7.9/9.2, respectively. Approximately 7-20% of RDX was mineralized to CO2 in the presence of cells at all pH tested; AQDS increased the extent of 14CO2 produced. Nitrous oxide and nitrite were end products in the strictly abiotic pathway, but nitrite was depleted in the presence of cells to form ammonium. Understanding the different products formed in the abiotic versus biological pathways and the influence of pH is critical to developing mixed biotic-abiotic remediation strategies for RDX.

AB - This study investigated extracellular electron shuttle-mediated RDX biodegradation and the distribution of ring cleavage metabolites generated by biological degradation (cells) versus the products formed by abiotic degradation (reduced electron shuttles), and when the two pathways were acting simultaneously. All pathways were influenced by pH. Buffered suspensions (pH 6.8/7.9/9.2) were performed with cell-free anthrahydroquinone-2,6-disulfonate as the sole electron donor, cells (Geobacter metallireducens) + acetate, or cells/acetate + anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate as an electron shuttle. The metabolites identified included methylenedinitramine, formaldehyde, nitrous oxide, nitrite, ammonium and carbon dioxide. As pH increased, the rates of RDX reduction by AH2QDS also increased. Cells alone reduced RDX faster at the lower pH values. However, at all pH the rates of the electron shuttle-mediated pathways were consistently the fastest, and the proportion of carbon present as formaldehyde, which is a precursor to mineralization, was highest in the presence of electron shuttles. Formaldehyde accounted for 45/51/54% of the carbon in electron shuttle amended cell suspensions as opposed to 13/42/45% of carbon without shuttles at the pH 6.8/7.9/9.2, respectively. Approximately 7-20% of RDX was mineralized to CO2 in the presence of cells at all pH tested; AQDS increased the extent of 14CO2 produced. Nitrous oxide and nitrite were end products in the strictly abiotic pathway, but nitrite was depleted in the presence of cells to form ammonium. Understanding the different products formed in the abiotic versus biological pathways and the influence of pH is critical to developing mixed biotic-abiotic remediation strategies for RDX.

KW - Bioremediation

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KW - Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms

KW - RDX

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