Bleaching-Resistant Super-Resolution Fluorescence Microscopy

Jiwoong Kwon, Mohamed Saleh Elgawish, Sang Hee Shim

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Photobleaching is the permanent loss of fluorescence after extended exposure to light and is a major limiting factor in super-resolution microscopy (SRM) that restricts spatiotemporal resolution and observation time. Strategies for preventing or overcoming photobleaching in SRM are reviewed developing new probes and chemical environments. Photostabilization strategies are introduced first, which are borrowed from conventional fluorescence microscopy, that are employed in SRM. SRM-specific strategies are then highlighted that exploit the on–off transitions of fluorescence, which is the key mechanism for achieving super-resolution, which are becoming new routes to address photobleaching in SRM. Off states can serve as a shelter from excitation by light or an exit to release a damaged probe and replace it with a fresh one. Such efforts in overcoming the photobleaching limits are anticipated to enhance resolution to molecular scales and to extend the observation time to physiological lifespans.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2101817
JournalAdvanced Science
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Mar 25


  • fluorophore
  • photobleaching
  • photostability
  • photoswitching
  • super-resolution fluorescence microscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)
  • Engineering(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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