Brand personality structures in the United States and Korea: Common and culture-specific factors

Yongjun Sung, Spencer F. Tinkham

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

188 Citations (Scopus)


The symbolic meaning of commercial brands (often called brand personality) can represent the values and beliefs of a culture. When a set of global brands were rated on the same personality attributes in the United States and Korea, 6 common dimensions of brand personality and 2 factors unique to each culture were observed. The 2 culture-specific factors in Korea (Passive Likeableness and Ascendancy) support our general hypothesis that Korean brand personality structure carries cultural meaning, reflecting the importance of Confucian values in Korea's social and economic systems. Although their cultural meaning is less clear, the 2 unique factors (White Collar and Androgyny) that emerged in the U.S. sample suggest changing cultural values associated with occupational status and gender roles.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)334-350
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Consumer Psychology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2005 Jan 1


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology
  • Marketing

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