Objective: To produce butyric acid from red algae such as Gelidium amansii in which galactose is a main carbohydrate, microorganisms utilizing galactose and tolerating inhibitors in hydrolysis including levulinic acid and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are required. Results: A newly isolated bacterium, Clostridium sp. S1 produced butyric acid not only from galactose as the sole carbon source but also from a mixture of galactose and glucose through simultaneous utilization. Notably, Clostridium sp. S1 produced butyric acid and a small amount of acetic acid with the butyrate:acetate ratio of 45.4:1 and it even converted acetate to butyric acid. Clostridium sp. S1 tolerated 0.5–2 g levulinic acid/l and recovered from HMF inhibition at 0.6–2.5 g/l, resulting in 85–92 % butyric acid concentration of the control culture. When acid-pretreated G. amansii hydrolysate was used, Clostridium sp. S1 produced 4.83 g butyric acid/l from 10 g galactose/l and 1 g glucose/l. Conclusion: Clostridium sp. S1 produces butyric acid from red algae due to its characteristics in sugar utilization and tolerance to inhibitors, demonstrating its advantage as a red algae-utilizing microorganism.
- Butyric acid fermentation
- Gelidium amansii
- Red algae hydrolysate
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology