Cadmium minimization in wheat: A critical review

Muhammad Rizwan, Shafaqat Ali, Tahir Abbas, Muhammad Zia-ur-Rehman, Fakhir Hannan, Catherine Keller, Mohammad I. Al-Wabel, Yong Sik Ok

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

169 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and its subsequent transfer to food chain is a major environmental issue worldwide. Understanding wheat response to Cd stress and its management for aiming to reduce Cd uptake and accumulation in wheat may help to improve wheat growth and grain quality. This paper reviewed the toxic effects, tolerance mechanisms, and management of Cd stress in wheat. It was concluded that Cd decreased germination, growth, mineral nutrients, photosynthesis and grain yield of wheat and plant response to Cd toxicity varies with cultivars, growth conditions and duration of stress applied. Cadmium caused oxidative stress and genotoxicity in wheat plants. Stimulation of antioxidant defense system, osmoregulation, ion homeostasis and over production of signalling molecules are important adaptive strategies of wheat under Cd stress. Exogenous application of plant growth regulators, inorganic amendments, proper fertilization, silicon, and organic, manures and biochar, amendments are commonly used for the reduction of Cd uptake in wheat. Selection of low Cd-accumulating wheat cultivars, crop rotation, soil type, and exogenous application of microbes are among the other agronomic practices successfully employed in reducing Cd uptake by wheat. These management practices could enhance wheat tolerance to Cd stress and reduce the transfer of Cd to the food chain. However, their long-term sustainability in reducing Cd uptake by wheat needs further assessment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)43-53
Number of pages11
JournalEcotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Volume130
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Aug 1
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Agricultural practices
  • Biochar
  • Food security
  • Growth and yield
  • Mineral nutrients
  • Silicon

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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  • Cite this

    Rizwan, M., Ali, S., Abbas, T., Zia-ur-Rehman, M., Hannan, F., Keller, C., Al-Wabel, M. I., & Ok, Y. S. (2016). Cadmium minimization in wheat: A critical review. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 130, 43-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2016.04.001