Cadmium stress in rice: toxic effects, tolerance mechanisms, and management: a critical review

Muhammad Rizwan, Shafaqat Ali, Muhammad Adrees, Hina Rizvi, Muhammad Zia-ur-Rehman, Fakhir Hannan, Muhammad Farooq Qayyum, Farhan Hafeez, Yong Sik Ok

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

162 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Cadmium (Cd) is one of the main pollutants in paddy fields, and its accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and subsequent transfer to food chain is a global environmental issue. This paper reviews the toxic effects, tolerance mechanisms, and management of Cd in a rice paddy. Cadmium toxicity decreases seed germination, growth, mineral nutrients, photosynthesis, and grain yield. It also causes oxidative stress and genotoxicity in rice. Plant response to Cd toxicity varies with cultivars, growth condition, and duration of Cd exposure. Under Cd stress, stimulation of antioxidant defense system, osmoregulation, ion homeostasis, and over production of signaling molecules are important tolerance mechanisms in rice. Several strategies have been proposed for the management of Cd-contaminated paddy soils. One such approach is the exogenous application of hormones, osmolytes, and signaling molecules. Moreover, Cd uptake and toxicity in rice can be decreased by proper application of essential nutrients such as nitrogen, zinc, iron, and selenium in Cd-contaminated soils. In addition, several inorganic (liming and silicon) and organic (compost and biochar) amendments have been applied in the soils to reduce Cd stress in rice. Selection of low Cd-accumulating rice cultivars, crop rotation, water management, and exogenous application of microbes could be a reasonable approach to alleviate Cd toxicity in rice. To draw a sound conclusion, long-term field trials are still required, including risks and benefit analysis for various management strategies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17859-17879
Number of pages21
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Volume23
Issue number18
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Sep 1
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Poisons
Cadmium
cadmium
rice
tolerance
Toxicity
Soil
toxicity
Soils
Nutrients
toxic effect
Oryza
cultivar
Osmoregulation
Food
osmoregulation
Molecules
Oxidative stress
Food Chain
Photosynthesis

Keywords

  • Agricultural practices
  • Amendments
  • Antioxidant enzymes
  • Essential nutrients
  • Food security
  • Growth and yield
  • Reactive oxygen species

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

Cadmium stress in rice : toxic effects, tolerance mechanisms, and management: a critical review. / Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Adrees, Muhammad; Rizvi, Hina; Zia-ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Hannan, Fakhir; Qayyum, Muhammad Farooq; Hafeez, Farhan; Ok, Yong Sik.

In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Vol. 23, No. 18, 01.09.2016, p. 17859-17879.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Rizwan, M, Ali, S, Adrees, M, Rizvi, H, Zia-ur-Rehman, M, Hannan, F, Qayyum, MF, Hafeez, F & Ok, YS 2016, 'Cadmium stress in rice: toxic effects, tolerance mechanisms, and management: a critical review', Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 23, no. 18, pp. 17859-17879. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-6436-4
Rizwan, Muhammad ; Ali, Shafaqat ; Adrees, Muhammad ; Rizvi, Hina ; Zia-ur-Rehman, Muhammad ; Hannan, Fakhir ; Qayyum, Muhammad Farooq ; Hafeez, Farhan ; Ok, Yong Sik. / Cadmium stress in rice : toxic effects, tolerance mechanisms, and management: a critical review. In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2016 ; Vol. 23, No. 18. pp. 17859-17879.
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