2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is formed as a by-product of the Maillard reaction during cooking and frying of protein-rich foods at high temperatures. PhIP is metabolized in the liver by cytochrome P450 1A1/2 to carcinogenic metabolite N-hydroxy PhIP, which can form DNA adduct. The ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) are capable of transporting the food-borne procarcinogen PhIP back to the intestinal lumen. In the present study, the uptake and efflux of PhIP were assessed by determining apparent bidirectional permeability coefficients and efflux ratio. The efflux ratio of PhIP with 10 μM caffeic acid was significantly increased compared with control. The mRNA levels of efflux transporters were measured to evaluate the effect of caffeic acid in the presence of PhIP on efflux-mediated transport of PhIP. Caco-2 cells exposed to 10 μM caffeic acid for 3 and 6 h also exhibited higher mRNA levels of P-gp and BCRP than those of control. In contrast, the mRNA level of MRP2 was only slightly induced after 3 h and 6 h. Therefore, caffeic acid at low concentration is expected to be used not only as an antioxidant, but also as an inhibitor of the absorption of food borne carcinogen heterocyclic amines. However, further studies, especially in vivo studies, are required to confirm these results.
- 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine
- ATP binding cassette transporter
- Breast cancer resistance protein
- Caffeic acid
- Multidrug resistance-associated protein
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmaceutical Science