Carbon- and oxygen-free Cu(InGa)(SSe)2 solar cell with a 4.63% conversion efficiency by electrostatic spray deposition

Hyun Yoon, Seung Heon Na, Jae Young Choi, Min Woo Kim, Hayong Kim, Hee Sang An, Byoung Koun Min, Sejin Ahn, Jae Ho Yun, Jihye Gwak, Kyunghoon Yoon, Sanjay S. Kolekar, Maikel F.A.M. Van Hest, Salem S. Al-Deyab, Mark T. Swihart, Sam S. Yoon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


We have demonstrated the first example of carbon- and oxygen-free Cu(In,Ga)(SSe)2 (CIGSSe) absorber layers prepared by electrospraying a CuInGa (CIG) precursor followed by annealing, sulfurization, and selenization at elevated temperature. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy showed that the amorphous as-deposited (CIG) precursor film was converted into polycrystalline CIGSSe with a flat-grained morphology after post-treatment. The optimal post-treatment temperature was 300 °C for annealing and 500 °C for both sulfurization and selenization, with a ramp rate of 5 °C/min. The carbon impurities in the precursor film were removed by air annealing, and oxide that was formed during annealing was removed by sulfurization. The fabricated CIGSSe solar cell showed a conversion efficiency of 4.63% for a 0.44 cm 2 area, with Voc = 0.4 V, Jsc = 21 mA/cm 2, and FF = 0.53.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8369-8377
Number of pages9
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Jun 11


  • CIGSSe
  • carbon free
  • electrostatic spray
  • oxygen free
  • solar cell
  • thin film

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)


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