This study aimed to maximize the valorization of bread waste, a typical food waste stream, into hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) by improving our kinetic understanding. The highest HMF yield (30ï¿½mol%) was achieved using SnCl4 as catalyst, which offered strong derived Brï¿½nsted acidity and moderate Lewis acidity. We evaluated the kinetic balance between these acidities to facilitate faster desirable reactions (i.e., hydrolysis, isomerization, and dehydration) relative to undesirable reactions (i.e., rehydration and polymerization). Such catalyst selectivity of SnCl4, AlCl3, and FeCl3 was critical in maximizing HMF yield. Higher temperature made marginal advancement by accelerating the undesirable reactions to a similar extent as the desirable pathways. The polymerization-induced metal-impregnated high-porosity carbon was a possible precursor of biochar-based catalyst, further driving up the economic potential. Preliminary economic analysis indicated a net gain of USD 43-236 per kilogram bread waste considering the thermochemical-conversion cost and chemical-trading revenue.
- Acid-catalyzed reaction
- Food waste
- Waste valorization
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Engineering
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Waste Management and Disposal