Cellular and Molecular Biology of Orphan G Protein-Coupled Receptors

Da Young Oh, Kyungjin Kim, Hyuk Bang Kwon, Jae Young Seong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

44 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is the largest and most diverse group of membrane-spanning proteins. It plays a variety of roles in pathophysiological processes by transmitting extracellular signals to cells via heterotrimeric G proteins. Completion of the human genome project revealed the presence of ∼168 genes encoding established nonsensory GPCRs, as well as 207 genes predicted to encode novel GPCRs for which the natural ligands remained to be identified, the so-called orphan GPCRs. Eighty-six of these orphans have now been paired to novel or previously known molecules, and 121 remain to be deorphaned. A better understanding of the GPCR structures and classification; knowledge of the receptor activation mechanism, either dependent on or independent of an agonist; increased understanding of the control of GPCR-mediated signal transduction; and development of appropriate ligand screening systems may improve the probability of discovering novel ligands for the remaining orphan GPCRs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)163-218
Number of pages56
JournalInternational Review of Cytology
Volume252
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2006 Sep 18

Fingerprint

Cytology
Molecular biology
G-Protein-Coupled Receptors
Cell Biology
Molecular Biology
Ligands
Genes
Human Genome Project
Heterotrimeric GTP-Binding Proteins
Signal transduction
Gene encoding
Signal Transduction
Screening
Membrane Proteins
Chemical activation
Membranes
Molecules

Keywords

  • Agonist
  • Antagonist
  • Constitutive activity
  • Deorphaned
  • G protein-coupled receptor
  • Ligand
  • Orphan
  • Screening assay
  • Signaling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cell Biology
  • Histology

Cite this

Cellular and Molecular Biology of Orphan G Protein-Coupled Receptors. / Oh, Da Young; Kim, Kyungjin; Kwon, Hyuk Bang; Seong, Jae Young.

In: International Review of Cytology, Vol. 252, 18.09.2006, p. 163-218.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Oh, Da Young ; Kim, Kyungjin ; Kwon, Hyuk Bang ; Seong, Jae Young. / Cellular and Molecular Biology of Orphan G Protein-Coupled Receptors. In: International Review of Cytology. 2006 ; Vol. 252. pp. 163-218.
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