Background and Purpose-Despite early aneurysm repair and aggressive management for complications, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) results in at least 25% mortality rate and 50% persistent neurological deficit. We investigated whether ceria nanoparticles which have potent antioxidative activities can protect against subarachnoid hemorrhage via attenuating fatal brain injuries. Methods-Uniform, 3 nm, water-dispersed ceria nanoparticles were prepared from short sol-gel reaction of cerium (III) ions with aminocaproic acid in aqueous phase. SAH was induced by endovascular perforation of middle cerebral artery of rats. A single dose of ceria nanoparticles (0.5 mg Ce/kg) or saline control was randomly administered intravenously at an hour post-SAH. Neuronal death, macrophage infiltration, SAH grade, and brain edema were evaluated at 72 hours. Mortality and neurological function were assessed for 14 days. Results-The obtained ceria nanoparticles with high Ce3+ to Ce4+ ratio demonstrated potent antioxidative, cytoprotective, and anti-inflammatory activities in vitro. In rodent SAH models, the severity of hemorrhage was comparable between the ceria nanoparticles- and saline-treated groups. However, ceria nanoparticles significantly reduced neuronal death, macrophage infiltration, and brain edema after SAH. Ceria nanoparticles successfully improved survival rates (88.2% in the ceria nanoparticles group versus 21.1% in the control group; P<0.001) and neurological outcomes (modified Garcia score: 12.1±0.5 in the ceria nanoparticles group versus 4.4±0.5 in the control group; P<0.001) of the animals with SAH. Conclusions-Ceria nanoparticles, totally synthesized in aqueous phase using aminocaproic acid, demonstrated promising results against SAH via potent antioxidative, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory activities. Given the obvious limitations of current therapies for SAH, ceria nanoparticles can be a potential therapeutic agent which might result in a paradigm shift in SAH treatment.
- Neuroprotective agents
- Reactive oxygen species
- Subarachnoid hemorrhage
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Advanced and Specialised Nursing