Background: It is unclear whether open- or closed-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) results in significant changes in posterior tibial slope, with no consensus on the magnitude of such changes. Furthermore, methods of measuring posterior tibial slope differ among studies. This meta-analysis was therefore designed to evaluate whether posterior tibial slope increases after open-wedge HTO and decreases after closed-wedge HTO and to quantify the magnitudes of the slope changes after open- and closed-wedge HTO using various methods of measuring posterior tibial slope. Hypothesis: Posterior tibial slope increases after open-wedge and decreases after closed-wedge HTO. The magnitude of change is similar for the 2 methods, and the value obtained for posterior tibial slope change is affected by the method of measurement. Study Design: Meta-analysis. Methods: Multiple comprehensive databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed, were searched for studies that evaluated the posterior slope of the proximal tibia in patients who had undergone open- and/or closed-wedge HTO. Studies were included that compared pre- and postoperative posterior tibial slopes, regardless of measurement method, including anterior and posterior tibial cortex or tibial shaft axis as a reference line, in patients who underwent open- or closed-wedge HTO. The quality of each included study was appraised with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Results: Twenty-seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled data, which included subgroups of 3 methods, showed that posterior tibial slope increased 2.02° (95% CI, 2.66° to 1.38°; P =.005) after open-wedge HTO and decreased 2.35° (95% CI, 1.38° to 3.32°; P <.001) after closed-wedge HTO. Conclusion: This meta-analysis confirmed that posterior tibial slope increased after open-wedge HTO and decreased after closed-wedge HTO when the results of a variety of measurement methods were pooled. The magnitude of change after open- and closed-wedge HTO was similar and small (approximately 2°), suggesting that both osteotomy techniques may have little effect on the biomechanics of the cruciate ligaments.
- high tibial osteotomy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
- Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation