Characteristics of residual symptoms in korean patients with major depressive disorder: A validation study for the korean version of depression residual symptom scale

Sol A. Park, Sang Won Jeon, Ho-Kyoung Yoon, Seo Young Yoon, Cheolmin Shin, Young-Hoon Ko

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Objective Residual symptoms of depression are related to more severe and chronic course of functional impairment with higher risk of relapse. The objective of this study was to validate, and determine psychometric properties of the Korean version of Depression Residual Symptom Scale (KDRSS). Methods A total of 203 outpatients with recent episode of major depression based on DSM-IV criteria were enrolled in this study. They had been treated with antidepressants and assessed by KDRSS, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-24 (HDRS-24), and Montgomery-Ås-berg Depression Rating Scale (MARDS). The validity and reliability of KDRSS were assessed, including internal consistency reliability, concurrent validity, temporal stability, factorial validity, and discriminative validity. Results Internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha=0.961), concurrent validity (MADRS: r=0.731, p<0.01, HDRS-24: r=0.663, p<0.01), and temporal stability (r=0.726, p<0.01) of KDRSS were all excellent. KDRSS showed good discriminative validity based on MARDS. KDRSS consisted of one-factor structure accounting for 63.8% of total variance. All subjects except two in full remission group had one or more residual symptoms. In 7 subscales of KDRSS consisting of similar items respectively, ‘lack of energy’ was the most commonly reported, followed by ‘increased emotionalism’ in this group. Conclusion KDRSS is a useful and sensitive instrument for measuring residual depressive symptoms. Since some depressive symptoms including ‘lack of energy’ and ‘increased emotionalism’ in patients with full remission might be persistent during psychiatric intervention, these symptoms need to be focused on in clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)178-185
Number of pages8
JournalPsychiatry Investigation
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Feb 1



  • Depression residual symptom scale
  • Depressive disorder
  • Remission

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry

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